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society Society or human society is a group of people related to each other through persistent relations such as social status, roles and social networks. By extension, society denotes the people of a region or country, sometimes even the world, taken as a whole.  Used in the sense of an association, a society is a body of individuals outlined by the bounds of functional interdependence, possibly comprising characteristics such as national or cultural identity, social solidarity, language or hierarchical organization.
Human societies are characterized by patterns of relationships between individuals sharing a distinctive culture and institutions. Like other communities or groups, a society allows its members to achieve needs or wishes they could not fulfill alone. independent of, and utterly irreducible to, the qualities of constituent individuals; it may act to oppress. The urbanization and rationalization inherent in some, particularly Western capitalist, societies, has been associated with feelings of isolation and social “anomie”.
More broadly, a society is an economic, social or industrial infrastructure, made up of a varied collection of individuals. Members of a society may be from different ethnic groups. A society may be a particular ethnic group, such as the Saxons; a nation state, such as Bhutan; a broader cultural group, such as a Western society. The word society may also refer to an organized voluntary association of people for religious, benevolent, cultural, scientific, political, patriotic, or other purposes. A “society” may even, though more by means of metaphor, refer to a soci * Evolution of societies
A half-section of the 12th century Song Dynasty version of Night Revels of Han Xizai, original by Gu Hongzhong; the painting, which is a masterpiece of the era’s artwork, portrays servants, musicians, monks, children, guests, hosts all in a single social environment, serves as an in-depth look into 10th-century Chinese social structure. According to anthropologist Maurice Godelier, one critical novelty in human society, in contrast to humanity’s closest biological relatives (chimpanzees and bonobo), is the parental role assumed by the males, which were unaware of their “father” connection[clarification needed]. 2] Sociologist Gerhard Lenski differentiates societies based on their level of technology, communication and economy: 1) hunters and gatherers, 2) simple agricultural, 3) advanced agricultural, 4) industrial, and 5) special (e. g. fishing societies or maritime societies).  This is somewhat similar to the system earlier developed by anthropologists Morton H. Fried, a conflict theorist, and Elman Service, an integration theorist, who have produced a system of classification for societies in all human cultures based on the evolution of social inequality and the role of the state.
This system of classification contains four categories: * Hunter-gatherer bands (categorization on duties and responsibilities. ) * Tribal societies in which there are some limited instances of social rank and prestige. * Stratified structures led by chieftains. * Civilizations, with complex social hierarchies and organized, institutional governments. In addition to this there are: * Humanity, mankind, that upon which rest all the elements of society, including society’s beliefs. * Virtual society is a society based on online identity, which is evolving in the information age.
Over time, some cultures have progressed toward more-complex forms of organization and control. This cultural evolution has a profound effect on patterns of community. Hunter-gatherer tribes settled around seasonal food stocks to become agrarian villages. Villages grew to become towns and cities. Cities turned into city-states and nation-states.  Today, anthropologists and many social scientists vigorously oppose the notion of cultural evolution and rigid “stages” such as these. In fact, much anthropological data has suggested that complexity (civilization, population growth and density, specialization, etc. does not always take the form of hierarchical social organization or stratification. Also, cultural relativism as a widespread approach/ethic has largely replaced notions of “primitive,” better/worse, or “progress” in relation to cultures (including their material culture/technology and social organization). Human societies are often organized according to their primary means of subsistence. As noted in the section on “Evolution of societies”, above, social scientists identify hunter-gatherer societies, nomadic pastoral societies, horticulturalist or simple farming societies, and intensive agricultural societies, also called civilizations.
Some consider industrial and post-industrial societies to be qualitatively different from traditional agricultural societies. One common theme for societies in general is that a lone person has rather limited means at their disposal, and societies serve to aid individuals in times of crisis. Traditionally, when an individual requires aid, for example at birth, death, sickness, or disaster, members of that society will rally others to render aid, in some form—symbolic, linguistic, physical, mental, emotional, financial, medical, or religious.
Many societies will distribute largess, at the behest of some individual or some larger group of people. This type of generosity can be seen in all known cultures; typically, prestige accrues to the generous individual or group. Conversely, members of a society may also shun or scapegoat members of the society who violate its norms. Mechanisms such as gift-giving and scapegoating, which may be seen in various types of human groupings, tend to be institutionalized within a society. Social evolution as a phenomenon carries with itself certain elements that could be detrimental to the population it serves.
Some societies will bestow status on an individual or group of people, when that individual or group performs an admired or desired action. This type of recognition is bestowed by members of that society on the individual or group in the form of a name, title, manner of dress, or monetary reward. Males, in many societies, are particularly susceptible to this type of action and subsequent reward, even at the risk of their lives. Action by an individual or larger group in behalf of some cultural ideal is seen in all societies.
The phenomena of community action, shunning, scapegoating, generosity, and shared risk and reward occur in subsistence-based societies and in more technology-based civilizations. Societies may also be organized according to their political structure. In order of increasing size and complexity, there are bands, tribes, chiefdoms, and state societies. These structures may have varying degrees of political power, depending on the cultural geographical, and historical environments that these societies must contend with.
Thus, a more isolated society with the same level of technology and culture as other societies is more likely to survive than one in closer proximity to others that may encroach on their resources (see history for examples). A society that is unable to offer an effective response to other societies it competes with will usually be subsumed into the culture of the competing society (see technology for examples)al organism such as an ant colony. Society today The term society is currently used to cover both a number of political and scientific connotations as well as a variety of associations
Western world The development of the Western world has brought with it the emerging concepts of Western culture, politics and ideas, often referred to simply as Western society. Geographically, it covers at the very least the countries of Western Europe, North America, Australia and New Zealand and sometimes also includes South America and Israel. The cultures and lifestyles of all of these stem from Western Europe. They all enjoy relatively strong economies and stable governments, allow freedom of religion, have chosen democracy as a form of governance, favor capitalism and international trade, re heavily influenced by Judeo-Christian values, and have some form of political and military alliance or cooperation.  : Information society Although the concept of information society has been under discussion since the 1930s, in the modern world it is almost always applied to the manner in which information technologies have impacted society and culture. It therefore covers the effects of computers and telecommunications on the home, the workplace, schools, government and various communities and organizations, as well as the emergence of new social forms in cyberspace. 7] One of the European Union’s areas of interest is the Information Society. Here policies are directed towards promoting an open and competitive digital economy, research into information and communication technologies, as well as their application to improve social inclusion, public services and quality of life.  World Summit on the Information Society, Geneva The International Telecommunications Union’s World Summit on the Information Society in Geneva and Tunis (2003/2005) has led to a number of policy and application areas where action is required.  These include: promotion of ICTs for development; * information and communication infrastructure; * access to information and knowledge; * capacity building; * building confidence and security in the use of ICTs; * enabling environment; * ICT applications in the areas of government, business, learning, health, employment, environment, agriculture and science; * cultural and linguistic diversity and local content; * media; * ethical dimensions of the Information Society; * international and regional cooperation. Knowledge society The Seoul Cyworld control room Main article: Knowledge society
As access to electronic information resources increased at the beginning of the 21st century, special attention was extended from the Information Society to the knowledge society. In the words of an Irish governmental analysis, “The capacity to manipulate, store and transmit large quantities of information cheaply has increased at a staggering rate over recent years. The digitisation of information and the associated pervasiveness of the Internet are facilitating a new intensity in the application of knowledge to economic activity, to the extent that it has become the predominant factor in the creation of wealth.
As much as 70 to 80 percent of economic growth is now said to be due to new and better knowledge. “ The Second World Summit on the Knowledge Society, held in Chania, Crete, in September 2009, gave special attention to the following topics: * business and enterprise computing; * technology-enhanced learning; * social and humanistic computing; * culture, tourism and technology; * e-government and e-democracy; * innovation, sustainable development and strategic management; * service science, management and engineering; * intellectual and human capital development; ICTs for ecology and the Green Economy; * future prospects for the Knowledge Society; * technologies and business models for the creative industri Other uses People of many nations united by common political and cultural traditions, beliefs, or values are sometimes also said to be a society (such as Judeo-Christian, Eastern, and Western). When used in this context, the term is employed as a means of contrasting two or more “societies” whose members represent alternative conflicting and competing worldviews (see Secret Societies).
Some academic, professional and scientific associations describe themselves as societies (for example, the American Mathematical Society, American Society of Civil Engineers, or the Royal Society). In some countries (for example the United States, France and Latin America), the term “society” is used in commerce to denote a partnership between investors or the start of a business. In the United Kingdom, partnerships are not called societies, but cooperatives or mutuals are often known as societies (such as friendly societies and building societies).
Running head: BIBLICAL VERSUS MAINSTREAM COUNSELING TERMINOLOGY Biblical Versus Mainstream Counseling Terminology Patricia Daugherty Liberty University Abstract In the counseling profession today, there is quite a bit of controversy and discussion about Christian counseling compared to conventional counseling. As the terminology of both the Bible and mainstream counseling are analyzed, distinct similarities are evident. This analysis of key Biblical and contemporary counseling terminology will show examples of basic terms, their meaning, and usage in both settings.
One of the results revealed during this research was that many counseling terms are used in conventional counseling have similar meanings in the Bible. This study shows that certain words that are used in the field of counseling today are indirectly built upon Biblical principles. Biblical Versus Mainstream Counseling Terminology Introduction There are many opinions and much debate concerning the use of the Bible and Scriptures in the counseling setting. Many in the secular community have questioned the use and the legitimacy of the results of counseling sessions that are based wholly on a religious belief system.
Many feel that since counseling that revolves around Biblical beliefs is and not based on scientific experiments and results is it not a valid form of diagnosis and treatment. Based on the research of Howard, etal (2005), Psychology is the result of man-made theories and scientific studies and has no foundation built upon religious beliefs. Psychology is known as the study of the mind and is an academic discipline that bases its theories on the scientific method and the study of human behaviors.
Psychology attempts to understand the role of a person’s mental functioning and their social behaviors all the while trying to determine any underlying physiological issues. Psychologists study such things as personality, emotion, behavior and interpersonal relationships, and the unconscious mind (Ganje-Fling & McCarthy, 1991). They base their diagnoses on previously studied mental disorders and develop treatment plans based on those diagnoses. There is an obvious difference between the psychological direction of counseling the Biblical direction of counseling.
Psychology deals mostly with the study of theories and concepts that have been developed by scientists as opposed to the Bible’s study being focused on God and his direction of how we should live our lives. God has laid out his guide for us to follow in the Bible and Christian counselors work to help their client’s use His guide to work through their troubles. Both of these views have seemed to be on opposite ends of the spectrum for as long as counseling has been in existence.
Over the past several years, there has been a surge to try and integrate these two views into one view that will be more beneficial for the client as well as the counselor. The problem with this idea is that there has been so much debate between the professionals in each of these over the years that they do not want to admit to a common ground between the two. Clinton & Ohlschlager (2002) discuss the importance of the use of the Bible in contemporary counseling sessions and the use of contemporary counseling terminology and techniques in Christian counseling.
They suggest a more liberal approach to the counseling session one in which the Bible is used to enrich the counseling session and make it more rewarding for everyone. The research that was completed in this analysis was done to demonstrate how important the role the Bible and its terminology can be to contemporary counseling. The research was conducted on several terms that were commonly used in both the Bible and the counseling profession. It was determined that were many terms used in counseling today that are also mentioned in various verses in both the Old and New Testament.
The research showed that many of these terms have the same meaning in both disciplines and some have totally different meanings which was the main purposes of this paper. The reader will be presented with the meaning of the terms in both the Bible and the counseling profession, they will be presented with examples of their use in both the Old and New Testament, and how their usage compares under both disciplines. It will be important that the reader realizes that the use of Biblical terms in contemporary counseling can only work to increase the positive outcome of counseling and make the experience more enlightening for all involved.
Analysis Counselor/Counsel According to Holman’s Illustrated Bible Dictionary (2003), a counselor is someone who will analyze a situation and then give advice to the people involved and help direct them toward the appropriate decision or course of action. In the King James Version of the Bible, there are 14 references to the word counselor, 11 of which are located in the Old Testament and three of which are located in the New Testament. The term counselor can also be understood to mean someone who acts as a consultant not only to one person but to a group of people as well.
An example of this can be found in the Old Testament in 1 Kings 12:6-7, 6 “And, King Rehoboam consulted with the old men, that stood before Solomon his father while he yet lived, and said, How do ye advise that I may answer this people? 7 And they spake unto him, saying, If thou wilt be servant unto this people this day, and wilt serve them, and answer them, and speak good words to them, then they will be thy servants for ever. ” These Scriptures show that even in the Bible a counselor was sought out to give advice and to help people make important decisions in their life.
The words that were spoken to King Rehoboam demonstrate some of the guiding principles in counseling today. He was advised to speak kindly to his people and answer their questions, and the result would be that they would serve him. Counselors should not expect their clients to serve them, but they should follow this same advice when talking with their clients. In the Bible, there are many persons who were considered to be counselors including Joseph of Arimatheae. In Mark 15:43, “Joseph of Arimathaea, an honourable counselor, which also waited for the kingdom of God, came, and ent in bodily unto Pilate, and craved the body of Jesus”. This shows a good example that many people in the Bible was perceived as counselors because of their ability to give advice and help others. There are many additional instances in both the Old and New Testament that show examples of the use and influence of counselors. There are even instances where God is considered to be a counselor. In Psalms 16:7, “I will bless the LORD, who hath given me counsel: my reins also instruct me in the night seasons”.
Discussion The use of counselors and the act of counseling is very prevalent in the Bible and in the examples demonstrated above. One of the key aspects of counseling is the fact that it requires the counselor to be a good listener. As evident in both the Bible as well as the mainstream counseling setting, in order to be an effective counselor you must be an effective listener. Not only is it important to listener to what the client is saying but the counselor must also be able to “hear” what the client is saying.
The examples that have been presented show that the role of the counselor has always, in one way or another, been a part of our existence. In the contemporary counseling setting, a counselor is someone who gives advice or counsels another person concerning educational, personal, or professional issues (McMinn, 1996). The Biblical examples and the definition presented by McMinn show that there is a correlation between the meaning of counselor in both disciplines. The research presented shows that in the Bible as well as in mainstream counseling the term counselor can be interchangeable.
In, Belaire, Young, & Elder’s (2005) article they discuss the importance of the inclusion of the use of Scripture within the counseling setting, but they also warn that not all Scriptures are appropriate for use in the counseling session. They go on to discuss the use of the Bible as a guide for the contemporary counselor in structuring their sessions to show the client that the Bible can be used as a guide and a reference that can be used in times of trouble. Help/Helper
The King James Version of the Bible uses the word help in two technical but different ways. First, help is used to demonstrate equipment such as a devise used to secure a ship. As demonstrated in Acts 27:17, “Which when they had taken up, they used helps, undergirding the ship; and, fearing lest they should fail into the quicksands, strake sail, and so were driven”. Modern translations of the term “help” as seen in Acts are understood to mean such things as ropes, cables, etc. The second use of the word help is in the form of the gift of ministry.
An example of this is shown in 1 Corinthians 12:28, “And God hath set some in the church, first apostles, secondarily prophets, thirdly teachers, after that miracles, then gifts of healings, helps, governments, diversities of tongues”. In Corinthians, “help” is understood to mean the ability of someone to offer assistance to others. God is also seen as the ultimate “help” to people who lack strength and live in poverty. According to Strong’s Exhaustive concordance of the Bible, there are 115 instances where the term help appears in the Old Testament and ten instances where it occurs in the New Testament.
In many of the occurrences, help has a similar mean as the term “counsel” but for the purposes of the research presented here it means to contribute to the fulfillment of a need. Discussion In the counseling environment, the term is most recognizable when it is used as the “helping relationship” in terms as of someone being in the “helping profession” (McMinn, 1996). What is meant by the term “helping”? Basically, it is used in the fields of counseling and guidance. It often requires the person to work in difficult situations and help others make difficult choices.
When working with clients, there are different steps that need to be addressed in order to reach the desired outcome. First, the counselor needs to determine what is actually going on with the client. It is important to help the client realize what the key issues are that they need to change. Second, the counselor needs to talk with the client help them determine what solutions will work best for them. Third, the counselor needs to work with the client to help them set goals to accomplish the task ecessary to take care of their problems (Monroe, & Schwab, 2009). In order to be an effective counselor, it is very important to be able to help your clients. Helping is a skill that is taught in every counseling training program. However, it is possible for a counselor to become too caught up in the techniques that the actually lose the true essence of what helping means. There some things that can be done to help keep the counselor from becoming too technical. First, the counselor can practice what is called active listening.
The counselor can listen with a purpose and be able to respond in a way that their clients are aware that they are being heard and understood. Second, the counselor can fine tune their reflective skills. Basically, reflective skills allow the counselor the ability to be able to repeat what the client has told them but only using their own words. Finally, an effective counselor must possess valuable probing skills (Oakes, & Raphel, 2008). Many times a client is unwilling to really let the counselor know everything is going on with them at first.
So in these instances, it is important for the counselor to be able to word their questions in nonintrusive ways so that they are able to get the client to reveal more to them. The research has shown that there is a comparison between the meaning of the term help in the Bible and in contemporary counseling. In both disciplines, it is evident that the primary goal of helping is to basically give assistance to those that are in need. It is important to realize that people may need this help in many different ways. Healing
Healing is a term that is used in various settings such as the medical field, counseling, and in the Bible as well. In its basic meaning, it means to restore someone’s health or to restore them to spiritual wholeness. Healing is probably one of the most used terms in all of the afore mentioned disciplines because all three are concentrated in curing either the mind, body, or spirit. There were 14 references to healing found in the King James Version of the Bible with the majority of them being in the New Testament.
Nearly one-fifth of the Gospels of the New Testament show examples of Jesus’ miracles of physical and mental healing. God, through his work, provides His people with healing of physical ailments, emotional problems, and spiritual issues. Depending on which Scriptures are being references, healing can take on different meanings. Those that are referenced in the Old Testament can result in a different interpretation than those of the New Testament partially due to Jesus’ influence through that part of the Bible.
There term healing occurs 14 times in the King James Version of the Bible, with five occurrences in the Old Testament and nine occurrences in the New Testament. The essence of healing can be seen in the Old Testament in Jeremiah 14:19, “Have You utterly rejected Judah? Has Your soul loathed Zion? Why have You stricken us so that there is no healing for us? We looked for peace, but there was no good; And for the time of healing, and there was trouble”. The Bible not only tells of people’s spiritual status but it is also concerned about their physical condition as well.
As far as the New Testament is concerned a good example of healing can be seen in Matthew 4:23, “And Jesus went about all Galilee, teaching in their synagogues, preaching the gospel of the kingdom, and healing all kinds of sickness and all kinds of disease among people”. The Gospels record 14 distinct instances of physical and mental healing. Jesus commissioned His disciples to continue His basic ministry, including healing. Discussion It is evident through the examples demonstrated above that the Bible is a priceless tool for not only the Christian counselor but the contemporary counselor as well.
The Bible shows examples of instances of healing not only physical, but emotional and spiritual as well. The term psychosomatic is a term that means “soul and body”, and refers to the close relationship between the body and the spirit. If something is affecting the soul they it is affecting the body as well. The health of a person’s soul may be a direct indication of the health of the body. In the Bible, John wished for his friend Gaius to “prosper in every way and be in good health, just as your soul prospers”.
This is in direct correlation to the meaning of psychosomatic in that “a person is a unity; body and soul cannot be separated” (Clinton, & Ohlschlager, 2002). Christian believe in healing through faith, but trying to decide what techniques are scriptural, proper, and psychologically helpful confuses the believer. Jesus used different methods in His healing ministry which included calling upon the faith of the person or bystanders to be healed, toughing the sick person, praying, assuring forgiveness of sin, uttering commands, and using physical media.
As is now with contemporary counseling, the faith of the individual was an important factor in the healing process. Speaking to the woman who has been hemorrhaging, Jesus said, “Your faith has made you well”, Mark 5:34. As with the Biblical meaning of the word healing, the contemporary counseling discipline also operates on the premise that faith plays a big factor in if counseling will work and how quickly the client experiences healing. It is important for the counselor to reiterate to their client that they have to have faith not only in themselves but in the therapeutic process as well if they are going to experience results.
The research shows that in both disciplines the term healing has much the same meaning and is used in similar ways. Conclusion During this analysis, there were many additional terms that were evident that could have been included such as advise, advocate, power, and trust. There are many additional Scriptures that are in the Bible that offer countless more examples of the terms presented in this research as well as other counseling terms. There has been countless research presented in journals and books that go deeper into the comparison of Biblical and counseling terminology.
The main focus of this paper was to demonstrate the importance of the parallels of terminology in both settings. The research has shown that there is a distinct parallel between the terminologies used in counseling with the same terminology used in the Bible. When the client is working one on one with a Christian counselor, this becomes more evident. The use of the Biblical meanings used within the contemporary counseling setting give both the counselor as well as the client a more enriching experience.
During the research and analysis of this terminology there some good points and concerns and that became evident. One positive thing that was discovered was that the use Biblical terminology has become a very useful benefit in the contemporary counseling environment. Belaire, Young, & Elder (2005) state that as long as the counselor uses their best judgment, are careful not to offend their clients, and follow good ethical guidelines the use of Scriptures during the counseling sessions can result in more positive outcomes.
Over the past several years, the use of religious principles and Scripture has become more common in the counseling setting especially when the counselor branches out to serve a more diverse population (Belaire, Young, & Elder, 2005). One possible negative that was discovered during this research is the possibility of offending the client if they were not open to the discussion or the use of religious principles during the counseling sessions. The counselor needs to be sensitive to the feelings, values, and beliefs of their clients before delving into discusses regarding religious beliefs and principles.
With today’s large diverse population, counselors are finding that they are serving many different people who have belief systems that vary greatly from their own. The Bible states a definite set of morals and a distinct belief system and does not sanction any deviation from this. The counselor must remain diligent in their effort to live a Christ-like life but also they need to make sure they do not push their beliefs onto their clients if the client is not ready.
The research that has been completed for this paper has enlightened my understanding on the multiple uses and meanings of the terminology that is used comparatively in the Bible as well as in the counseling setting. Both settings deal with the restoration of the person, the Bible with the restoration of the spirit and counseling with the restoration of the mind, body, and spirit. I feel that with that with the proper integration, regardless of the client’s belief system, Biblical concepts and morals can have a definite impact on the counseling sessions.
This is not to say that the counselor should push their belief system onto their clients, but include them in a way that the client will understand and apply them to their own lives. References Alexander, T. D. & Rosner, B. S (Eds. ). (2000). New dictionary of Biblical Theology. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press. Belaire, C. , Young, J. S. , & Elder, A. (2005). Inclusion of religious behaviors and attitudes in counseling: Expectations of conservative Christians. Counseling and Values, 49(2), 82-94. Brand, C. , Draper, C. , and England, A. 2003). Holman illustrated Bible dictionary. Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers. Clinton, T. , & Ohlschlager, G. (2002). Competent Christian counseling. Colorado Springs, CO: Water Brook Press. Commentary critical and explanatory on the whole Bible. Retrieved March 1, 2010, from http://biblestudytools. com/commentaries/jamieson-fausset-brown/. Dobson, E. G et al. (1999). King James Bible commentary. Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson Publishers, Inc. Easton’s Bible dictionary. Retrieved February 25, 2010, from http://biblestodytools. om/dictionaries/eastons-bible-dictionary/. Ganje-Fling, M. A. & McCarthy, P. R. (1991). A comparative analysis of spiritual direction and psychotherapy. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 19, 103-117. Howard, N. C. , McMinn, M. R. , Bissill, L. D. , Faries, S. R. , & Van Meter, J. B. (2000). Spiritual directors and clinical psychologist: A comparison of mental health and spiritual values. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 28, 308-320. King James version Greek lexicon. Retrieved February 23, 2010, from http://biblestudytools. om/lexicons/greek/kjv/. Lapointe, F. H. (1972). Who originated the term ‘psychology’? Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 8, 328-335. McMinn, M. R. (1996). Psychology, theology, and spirituality in Christian counseling. Carol Stream, IL: Tyndale House Publishers. Monroe, P. G. , & Schwab, G. M. (2009). God as healer: A closer look at Biblical images of inner healing with guiding questions for counselors. Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 28(2), 121-129. New American standard Hebrew lexicon. Retrieved February 27, 2010, from http. iblestudytools. com/lexicons/Hebrew/nas/. Oakes, K. E. , & Raphel, M. M, (2008). Spiritual assessment in counseling: Methods and practice. Counseling and Values, 52, (3), 240-252. Strong, J. (1995). Strong’s exhaustive concordance of the Bible. Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson Publishers. Tisdale, T. C. , Doehring, C. E. , & Lorriane-Poirier, V. (2003). Three voices, one song: A psychologist, spiritual director, and pastoral counselor share perspectives on providing care. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 31(1), 52-68.
“HOW SECONDARY SCHOOLS CAN AVOID THE SEVEN DEADLY SCHOOL “SINS” OF INCLUSION” ABSTRACT As more students with disabilities are included in general education classrooms, many obstacles must be overcome before parents, teachers, students, and administrators deem inclusion effective.
This article identifies seven “sins”, which are barriers to inclusive practices in secondary schools: Negative teacher perspectives; lack of knowledge regarding special education terminology, issues and laws; poor collaboration skills; lack of administration support; limited instructional repertoire; inappropriate assessment procedures; and conflict between scheduling and time management. The literature on inclusive practice is cited as evidence for each “sin,” and advice for avoiding each of them is provided. When the term inclusion is spoken in the realm of education, it sparks controversy. The term inclusion refers to the practice of including another group of students in regular classrooms, those with problems of health and/or physical, developmental, and emotional problems” (Nelson, Ralonsky, & McCarthy, 2004, p. 442). The way inclusive practices are implemented at the secondary level varies substantially from school to school, district to district, and state to state. In one middle or high school, inclusion may mean that only students with mild disabilities are educated in the general education classroom and only for their core academic subjects.
Another school’s inclusive practices may have all students with disabilities, regardless of the severity of the disability, educated for the entire day in general education classrooms while receiving only supportive services from the special education teacher. This second example of inclusion is referred to as “full inclusion” (Kauffman, Landrum, Mock, B. Sayeski, & K. L. Sayeski, 2005). The inclusion of students with disabilities has significantly increased over the past decade (Kamens, Loprete, & Slostad, 2003). According to the Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services, it was reported that around 76. % of students with disabilities are educated in the regular classroom for some part of the school day (U. S. Department of Education, 2002). Mastropierie and Scruggs (2001) have identified significant challenges that prevent inclusive education from being successful at the secondary level, including the level and pace of content being taught, expectations of independent study skills, increasing number of content area classes, and meeting the demands of high stakes testing. These and many other obstacles must be overcome before inclusion can be deemed effective by parents, teachers, students, and administrators.
This article identifies seven deadly “sins” that are barriers to establishing effective inclusive practices in middle and high schools, and it gives some advice on how to avoid them. School district personnel, school administrators, school consultants, general educators, special educators, and paraprofessionals must work together to avoid these school-wide sins because committing, them could ultimately crumble efforts to effectively include students with disabilities into secondary general education classrooms.
SCHOOL SIN #1: NEGATIVE TEACHER PERSPECTIVES Research has shown that negative attitudes of staff members involved in inclusion programs can undermine the efforts of inclusion (Centra, 1990). deBettencourt (1999) conducted a study which investigated the attitudes of secondary general educators who taught in inclusive classrooms. Of the seventy-one teachers who were surveyed, the majority of general educators either disagreed with the concept of mainstreaming or did not have strong feelings regarding the issue (deBettencourt, 1999).
When administrators, teachers, guidance counselors, parents, and related service personnel have negative perspectives about inclusive education at a particular school, those who teach in inclusive classrooms at that school find it very difficult to achieve a high level of success because their support networks are abolished. Negative perspectives about inclusive education make schools who try to implement inclusive classrooms likely candidates for failure. I believe a great way to avoid negative perspectives for staff members is to start each morning by giving themselves and others affirmations.
State something positive about yourself or a colleague, and then state something positive that you will do for the students on your school’s campus. It may help to write down positive thoughts on a sticky note and place it somewhere so it will be seen it throughout the day. Middle and High School personnel may also want to display encouraging thoughts throughout their school campus and provide simple recognition for staff members’ hard work. This will help to better establish a positive schoolwide climate (Bauer & Brown, 2001). Another way to avoid negative thinking is to read a passage out of an nspirational book each morning. If one does not have time to do these things in the morning, it is important to reserve a specific time during the day to evaluate daily thoughts and feelings, even if it is just twentyminutes. Journaling your thoughts is another way to focus on the positive and not the negative. When feeling frustrated and overwhelmed, write down the feelings and think critically about what triggered those feelings and what you can control in your environment to change those feelings into something positive (Maxwell, 2006).
When feeling incapable of finding a solution, ask for advice from a colleague, administrator, or friend. No good comes from harboring negative thoughts. SCHOOL SIN #2: LACK OF KNOWLEDGE REGARDING SPECIAL EDUCATION TERMINOLOGY, ISSUES, AND LAWS A general educator cannot be expected to be successful at teaching in an inclusive classroom without a solid foundation of knowledge about the students’ disabilities, educational needs, accommodations, modifications, and the laws that affect both the children with disabilities and the teacher.
The inclusive education literature base on inclusive education literature has shown a need to better inform general educators about special education issues. Kamens et al. (2003) found two significant areas of need when they surveyed seventy-one elementary general education teachers. The first need was to better inform general educators on the classifications of disabilities, types of accommodations, modifications, and the developmental history of the child with disabilities.
Liston (2004) conducted interviews with secondary general and special educators regarding co-teaching relationships. The analysis of the interviews showed a need for on-going professional development regarding inclusive and special education issues. It is so important for all school personnel to be vocal when it comes to understanding Exceptional Student Education (ESE) terminology, laws, and issues. When a child with a disability is placed in a general education classroom, the general educator needs to ask for the student’s Individual Education Plan (IEP).
The IEP contains information regarding the student’s disability, medical history, current educational performance level, annual education goals, short term objectives that assist in meeting the goals, types of support, accommodations, and types of modifications. The information that the IEP contains is crucial for the general educator to know. General educators, guidance counselors, and other school personnel involved in working with students who have disabilities, may have little experience in dealing with lEP’s, so it is necessary to ask the school’s ESE contact or a special educator for help.
Remember that asking for help is not viewed as a sign of incompetence. When school personnel remain silent about their needs regarding ESE issues, it only hurts the students. Administrators and the ESE contact at the school can play an important role in making sure staff members understand special education terminology, laws, and issues. I found it helpful when school personnel asked for professional development workshops dedicated to enhancing their knowledge. Additionally, staff members can search their school district’s website to contact school district ersonnel who are involved with special education and use them as a resource. Many of these district personnel could also be used for a professional development day workshop about special education issues. A quick way that I gain some insight on new and existing ESE issues and laws is to search the internet. Try to stick to . org or . gov websites because they are usually more credible. Two websites that I found useful are www. fape. org (The Families and Advocates Partnership for Education) and www. pacer. org (Parent Advocacy Coalition for Educational Rights).
These two websites offer easy to read information regarding Exceptional Student Education. A website that gives the definition and an explanation of the different disabilities is http://ericec. org/digests/e560. html. Another, but more comprehensive website to gather information regarding the laws that impact Exceptional Student Education is U. S. Department of Education (www. ed. gov). This site gives you a search bar to type in key words/topics. When school personnel remain silent about their needs regarding ESE issues, it only hurts the students.
SCHOOL SIN #3: POOR COLLABORATION Interpersonal collaboration is an approach for direct interaction between two or more equal parties voluntarily engaged in shared decision making as they work toward a universal goal (Friend & Cook, 2003). Effective and meaningful collaboration is the glue that binds a successful inclusion program together. McLeskey and Waldron (2002) found that good collaboration and communication among all members of the inclusion team is basic for an effective inclusion program.
Rainforth, York, and Macdonald (1992) defined collaborative teamwork as work accomplished equally and willingly by a group of people in a spirit of shared reward. Creating effective collaboration among all staff members at a school is especially challenging at the secondary level because most secondary educators are accustomed to working alone or within their specific departments; however Fullan (1991 ) found that the level and degree of successful educational change is a direct result of the extent to which teachers interact with one another.
Collaboration should include (but not be limited to) school administrators, general educators, special educators, school psychologists, school counselors, social workers, speech and language clinicians, school consultants, paraprofessionals, school healthcare personnel, and the student’s family members (Salend, 2005).
In order to effectively communicate with each member on the collaborative team, the team must first learn and practice the following communication skills described by Salend (2005): Listening carefully to others as they express their ideas, perspectives, concerns, and solutions, being tolerant of different viewpoints, using “I statements” when presenting your position, feelings, and perspectives, understanding culturally based differences in verbal and nonverbal communication, respecting confidentially, disagreeing respectfully, and being willing to compromise, (p. 67) Another way to begin building personal relationships is to start by affirming each person involved in the collaboration process on a daily or weekly basis. State a verbal affirmation to a group member or write an affirmation down to give to a group member anonymously or in private (Maxwell, 2006). Patience is a key virtue in the collaboration process. Those involved must be able to see beyond each other’s faults and to focus on how valuable each person is to the team. It is paramount to remember that people blossom under affirmations but wilt under criticism.
Faculty and staff must strive to talk positively in an open and nonthreatening environment. Staff members must be able to discuss what their school is doing for the students (Carpenter & Dyal, 2007). Each group member must keep an open mind and be forgiving of mistakes. School personnel must go into the collaborative process with the understanding that people will not always be able to meet their expectations. Otherwise, the collaboration team is set up for failure. Once the team has learned how to effectively communicate, comprehensive planning can take place.
Fleming and Monda-Amaya (2001) identified many important variables that affect team effectiveness when planning. These variables include identifying clear and specific team goals which are understood and supported by each team member and assigning each member a specific role (e. g. , facilitator, recorder, timekeeper, summarizer) so that members feel they belong to the team Additionally, it is important for team members to designate a team leader, to hold one another accountable, to establish a safe and welcoming environment for sharing ideas, and to implement a process to monitor the team’s progress.
During collaborative planning, the team must always focus their efforts on the students and their families. Vaughn, Bos, and Schumm (2000) described a cyclical stage process that should take place: 1) Goal/entry is the stage where roles, objectives, responsibilities, and expectations are clearly written. 2) In the Problem Identification Stage, each student is identified, along with an explicit description of the problem. 3) During the Implementation of Recommendations, the intervention plan is put into action. ) After the intervention plan is implemented, the Evaluation Stage consists of data collection, evidence of student’s work, and reports and observations from the persons who implemented the intervention. The final stage is the Redesign stage during which the evaluation process drives a revision process. During this stage, the intervention is continued, modified, or discontinued based on the evaluation data, and the process begins again at the Problem Identification stage, (p. 104) SCHOOL SIN #4: LACK OF ADMINISTRATION SUPPORT Mary D.
Poole once said “Leadership should be more participative than directive, more enabling than performing. ” A school’s administration needs to be the backbone of the school and always project a clear vision that empowers the faculty to achieve greatness within themselves and for their students. According to Sage and Burrello (1994), principals need to be willing to work with students with disabilities and include them into the general education curriculum despite any reservations if inclusion programs are to be accepted in their school.
Principals and other administrations must foster staff development activities with both regular and special educators. They must establish trusting and meaningful relationships among the staff, and provide effective and age appropriate instructional support for students with disabilities (Boscardin, 2005). A poor team of administrators makes the job of the instructional staff even more difficult, but even with a fragile administration, there are some band-aid solutions that will help teachers increase the effectiveness of including students with disabilities in the general education classroom.
One way for a teacher to bypass the lack of administrative support is to join the school’s Professional Development Committee. Any staff member at a school is allowed to join this committee, which is responsible for identifying the school’s needs and coming up with appropriate ways to address those needs, so it can become a powerful tool in fostering student achievement and teacher effectiveness. The professional development committee can promote knowledgebased decisions and create a deeper understanding of evidenced-based instruction.
This results in better educational outcomes for students and improved instructional practices for teachers (Boscardin, 2005). The key to this committee is establishing meaningful relationships with the entire school faculty and using those relationships to empower the administration. It is important for staff members to feel empowered even if no administrator is guiding or supporting them. The school staff must remember that there is always a way through the dark if hope is kept alive. Faculty members should not feel intimated by their school’s administration.
I found that a great way to begin addressing concerns to administrators is to establish a network of staff members, who share similar concerns. The next step would be to arrange a mutually convenient time and place for this group of staff members to meet with administrators to discuss their concerns in a safe and relaxing forum. One way to create a relaxing meeting room is to dim the lighting and add food and drinks to the equation. This relaxing environment should be created by the staff members and not left up to administrators.
It would be beneficial for the team of faculty members to meet a day before to clarify the concerns they want to address, to list their concerns, and to add possible solutions for each. This simple list would demonstrate to administrators that the staff members are trying to take a proactive approach in addressing the needs and concerns of the school. SCHOOL SIN #5: LIMITED INSTRUCTIONAL REPERTOIRE Teachers must understand that “not all children of any given age have learned the same things; they cannot all be taught in the same place, much ess the same things, at the same time” (Kauffman et al. , 2005, p. 3). Every teacher should meet each student at their point of need, regardless of where that point may lay. To do this, teachers need to individualize their instruction by making modifications and accommodations. Accommodations allow the student to access the curriculum without changing the content; modifications are changes that can be made to what students are expected to learn. (Florida Department of Education, 1997).
Some great instructional accommodations include: Providing a list of important vocabulary words with definitions, attaching pictures to important concepts to enhance understanding, highlighting important information in text, providing overviews and summaries of lessons, providing guided notes for students to fill in throughout the lesson, paraphrasing key ideas, displaying notes on graphic organizers, providing pictures/diagrams to go along with the text, and using a textbook written at an easier reading level (Halvorsen & Neary, 2001).
Technological accommodations can include: providing an audiotape of reading materials, enlarging the font size and changing the color of a specific text to add emphasis to a particular piece, and using a simple hand-held microphone to help reduce distractible noise (Villa, Thousand, Nevin, & Liston, 2005).
Classroom test accommodations include: Numbering each step when giving directions and simplifying directions in an easy to read format, providing an outline or study guide for a test, arranging problems in color coded sections, adding more space between problems, enlarging text for an easy to read format, reading questions orally, and allowing the student to use spell check or a word bank. Accommodations can also be made in scheduling, including: scheduling difficult classes in the morning, providing extended time to complete assignments, and providing the student with a timer for tasks.
You can reduce the number of problems on the test or assignment, but make sure the content is not modified. For example, a math test may have four problems on finding the missing length of a right triangle. An accommodation would be to give the student only two problems on this concept instead of four. That way that student is still assessed on the concepts. If you took out all four problems on finding the missing length of a right triangle it would be a modification because it is changing what the student is expected to learn.
Accommodations that can be made to the learning environment itself include: allowing the student the flexibility to move around, flexible scheduling, having students work in cooperative groups, using an individualized behavior plan, using a study cubicle, and providing assignments ahead of time (Halvorsen & Neary, 2001). Modifications to the curriculum include having a student partially complete a particular program or course requirements, altering the curriculum expectations below age or grade level, or giving alternate curricular goals (Florida Department of Education, 1997).
Many teachers have an array of techniques for diversifying instruction. Differentiated instruction is not providing a “normal” assignment given to the majority of the class and a “special” assignment to special education students. According to Tomlinson (2001), differentiated instruction can be a blend of whole class, small group, and individual instruction within one class period. It can be quite overwhelming to implement diverse instructional strategies when someone has limited knowledge or experience in doing so.
A great way to gain a lot of knowledge about a variety of instructional strategies is attending workshops on differentiated instruction. If you are unaware of any workshops in your district, ask your principal or a representative from the district curriculum department about obtaining more insight on instructional strategies that aim at teaching students from diverse backgrounds. Tomlinson (2001) suggested that teachers go slow when implementing differentiating instruction by first making small accommodations.
Next try planning an array of activities around a central topic/concept, and place those activities into centers and create a rotation schedule for the students to visit them Make sure the activities range in difficulty to ensure that each child is appropriately challenged. Students in a mixedability classroom finish assignments at different times. To minimize behavior disruptions, designate a list of activities students can perform when finished with their classroom assignments such as journal writing, reading for enjoyment, managing a portfolio, etc.
This gives the students some choice in the classroom, while also freeing the teacher to spend more time with the students who need more support (Tomlinson, 2001). When setting up centers, be sure to arrange an easy traffic flow. Each center should have a clear area with its own set of expectations posted. For example, a library center should have a set of expectations, that include keeping your voice down and putting a book back in the designated bin when finished reading. Students should be taught the specific center expectations which should be modeled in each center before actually beginning to implement centers.
Instructional staff must also be very consistent in monitoring and upholding the center expectations. Teachers must also decide on a way to organize student groups in centers. I use chart paper to display the different groups, and then I write each student’s name on a post-it note. Since secondary students are more independent than students in the primary grades, I allow my middle school students to choose their center(s) for that day as long as there are never more than four names under each center. The students know that they must have completed each center activity by the end of the week.
The only time students cannot have a choice of centers is when their names are under “Teacher Group. ” That means that I am meeting with those select students that day to teach, re-teach, or enrich a particular concept. This method allows me the flexibility of changing the groups quickly. One could also use a pocket chart and use index cards instead of post-it note or use a file folder system. SCHOOL SIN #6: INAPPROPRIATE ASSESSMENTS Just as teachers should be individualizing instruction, they should individualize their assessments.
According to Halvorsen and Neary (2001), student performance should be examined in correlation with statewide assessments; however particular importance should be placed on curriculum based performance. Popham (2003), as cited in Salend (2005), stated three questions that teachers should ask themselves when selecting a classroom-based assessment: 1) Is the assessment meaningful, and does it assess real-life demands in and out of the classroom? 2) Will the assessment give feedback that assists with planning and adjusting the instructional program? ) How much time will the assessment take away from the instructional program? The most individualized and comprehensive assessment takes the form of a student portfolio. A student portfolio is a “… collection of various authentic student products across a range of content areas throughout the school year that show the process and products associated with student learning” (Boerum, 2000 as cited in Salend, 2005 p. 507). The work, inside the portfolio, should demonstrate that the student has mastered a particular objective that aligns with state standards or that particular subject and grade level. The portfolio can contain essays, poems, worksheets, tests, oral reading reports, observations, tape recordings, completed activities, labs, and even pictures of activities in order to demonstrate a student mastering a particular objective like the understanding of velocity in a real life. Student portfolios should contain work samples over time that both the instructional staff and the student periodically review, evaluate and reflect upon.
The student should be able to update or create new personal goals based upon the progress made in their portfolio (Salend, 2005; Villa et al. , 2005). An instructional rubric is another way to assess student’s learning about a particular concept. Instructional rubrics are made up of written statements that state the specific criteria associated with various levels of proficiency for evaluating student performance (Whittaker, Salend, & Duhaney, 2001). Instructional rubrics increases students’ understanding of teacher expectations for the assignment and allow students to self-evaluate (Salend, 2005).
Teacher-made tests are yet another way to individualize student assessment; however developing a high-quality test can be a difficult task. According to Salend (2005), it is important to make sure that each test item directly aligns with the objectives that are being tested and that the percentage of test questions related to a specific concept is in agreement with the amount of time your class spent on these topics. Tests need to reflect both content and how that content has been taught.
If content has been taught by class discussion and problem solving techniques, it would be appropriate to test it through an essay question rather than a multiple choice question. Additionally, the language used in the test must be kept simple and concise. Teachers need to develop several ways for students to demonstrate that they have mastered a particular objective, such as creating a model, writing an essay, orally expressing knowledge, creating an illustrated timeline or creating a story book with illustrations about the concept.
Teachers can also administer pre and post teacher made tests that directly align with the concept/topic being taught or have students create their own study guide on a chapter or topic (Salend, 2005). SCHOOL SIN # 7: CONFLICTING SCHEDULING AND TIME MANAGEMENT For inclusion to be successful, it must be explicitly planned and scheduled. Halvorsen and Neary (2001) emphasized that when a student with disabilities is placed into a general education classroom, that student still must be provided with special education services.
This does not mean that every student must have a personal aide, but rather that the same level of support that was provided to the student in the special education classroom should be provided in the inclusive setting. Inclusive education efforts need to be coordinated with school restructuring at both the district and site level. A clear commitment to providing effective inclusive education should be upheld by the board of education and the superintendent (Halvorsen & Neary, 2001). Agencies in each state are designed to help promote inclusive education for school districts.
One of these agencies in Florida is the Florida Inclusion Network (FIN), funded through the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Part B Discretionary Federal Fund Grant. This agency provides learning opportunities, consultation, and information to promote inclusive education for school districts throughout the state of Florida. The Florida Inclusion Network helps to create inclusion “teams” at each secondary school for each grade level. Teams have a general education teacher for each subject, and then two inclusion teachers are attached to that team. ( e. g. A 6th grade inclusion team will consist of a 6th grade science, math, Language Arts, and Social Studies general educator with two inclusion teachers, depending on the number of students with disabilities who will be part of the 6th grade inclusion team). The next step is to carefully decide whether each ESE student for that particular grade level needs high-support or low-support. This is done by looking at the students’ test scores, IEP’s, and current grades. The highsupport students usually have a couple of ESE classes like math and language arts and then go into a general education classroom for science and social studies.
The team then places all the high-support students in the same periods for science, social studies, language arts, and math. Then the team places all the low-support ESE students in a different period than the highsupport students for science, social studies, language arts, and math. It is important to note that there must be an equal or higher number of general education students in those same periods so that the class is not labeled as a special education class. The two inclusion teachers would then take a group (either high-support or low-support) and “shadow” that group throughout the day.
The inclusion teacher should be “married” to the team of general education teachers and should help facilitate classroom rotational models and co-teach when needed. This is where meaningful collaboration becomes paramount! The inclusion teacher and general educator should plan lessons on a weekly, or daily basis, either through face to face contact or more easily through email. At the secondary level, scheduling planning meetings can be extremely difficult (Halvorsen & Neary, 2001). If a common planning period is unattainable, it may be best to plan before school when teachers are less tired.
Planning before school is also beneficial because members have a built-in deadline and know they must end the meeting before the students enter. Furthermore, I found it beneficial when the general educators would give the inclusion teacher weekly lessons plans a week ahead of time so the inclusion teacher had time to enhance the lesson by adding different learning modalities and making accommodations when needed. Flexible block scheduling is also another way to better meet the diverse needs of students with disabilities and struggling learners.
Many students entering middle and high school are required to take intensive math and reading classes which takes away meaningful electives so a flexible block schedule allows students to participate in more elective classes while also lessening the number of daily transitions. Block scheduling also reduces the teacher-student ratio and increases learning opportunities and small group instruction (Hottenstein, 1998). This becomes especially true when both the general and special educator are providing instruction during the same class period within the general education classroom (Villa et al. , 2005).
CONCLUSION The literature on inclusive education has shown that inclusion has become more accepted as an appropriate practice in our educational system. There has been significant growth in the last several decades in including students with disabilities into the general education classroom. (Kamens et al. , 2003). It is imperative for all educators to be aware of the seven deadly sins that create barriers to establishing an effective inclusion program, and all educators must strive to establish proactive strategies to avoid these school-wide sins at all cost. REFERENCES Bauer, A. M. , & Brown, G. M. 2001). Adolescents and inclusion: Transforming secondary schools. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes. Boscardin, M. L. (2005). The administrative role in transforming secondary schools to support inclusive evidence-based practices. American Secondary Education, 33(3), 21-32. Carpenter, L. B. , & Dyal, A. (2007). Secondary inclusion: Strategies for implementing the consultative teacher model. Education, 127(3), 344-350. Centra, N. H. (1990). A qualitative study of high school students in a resource program. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Syracuse University at Syracuse, NY. de Bettencourt, L. U. (1999).
General educators’ attitudes toward students with mild disabilities and their use of instructional strategies. Remedial and Special Education, 20(1), 27-35. Fleming, J. L. , & Monda-Amaya, L. E. (2001). Process variables critical for team effectiveness. Remedial and Special Education, 22(3), 158-171. Final Regulations for Part B of IDEA, 57 C. F. R. Section 300. 7 (1992). Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Amendments of 1997 (P. L. 105-17), 111 Stat. 37-157 (1997). Friend, M. , & Cook, L. (2003). Interactions: Collaboration skills for school professionals (4th ed. ) Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Fullan, M.
C. (1991). The new meaning of educational change (2nd ed. ) New York: Teacher College Press. Halvorsen, A. , & Neary, T. (2001 ). Building inclusive schools: Tools and strategies for success. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon. Hottenstein, D. S. (1998). Intensive scheduling: Restructuring America’s secondary school through time management. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. Kamens, M. W. , Loprete, S. ). , & Slostad, RA. (2003). Inclusive classrooms: What practicing teachers want to know. Action Teacher Education, 25(1), 20-26. Kauffman, J. M. , Landrum, T. J. , Mock, D. R. , Sayeski, B. , & Sayeski, K. L (2005).
Diverse knowledge and skills require a diversity of instructional groups. Remedial and Special Education, 26(1), 2-6. Liston, A. (2004) A qualitative study of secondary co-teachers. Orange, CA: Argosy University. Mastropieri, M. A. , & Scruggs, T. E. (2001). Promoting inclusion in secondary classrooms. Learning Disability Quarterly, 24(4), 265-274. Maxwell, J. (2006). The difference maker: Making your attitude your greatest asset. Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson, Inc. McLeskey, J. , & Waldron, N. L. (2002). Inclusion and school change: Teacher perceptions regarding curricular and instructional adaptations.
Teacher Education and Special Education, 25(1 ), 41-54. Nelson, J. L. , Palonsky, S. B. , & McCarthy, M. R. (2004). Critical issues in education: Dialogues and dialectics. In T. Dorwick & C. Harvey (Eds. ), Inclusion and mainstreaming: Special or common education (pp. 441-467). New York: McGraw-Hill. Rainforth, B. , York, J. , & Macdonald, C. (1992). Collaborative teams for students with severe disabilities: Integrating therapy and educational services. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes. Sage, D. D. , & Burrello, L. C. (1994). Leadership in educational reform. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes. Salend, S. J. (2005). Creating inclusive classrooms. 5th ed. ). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education. Tomlinson, C. A. (2001). How to differentiate instruction in mixed-ability classrooms. (2nd ed. ) Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. U. S. Department of Education. (2002). Twenty-fourth Annual Report to Congress on the Implementation of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Washington, DC: Office of Special Education Programs and Rehabilitative Services. Vaughn, S. , Bos, C. S. , & Schumm, J. S. (2000). Teaching exceptional, diverse, and at-risk students in the general education classroom (2nd ed. ). In P. A. Smith & V.
Lanigan (Eds). ,Collaborating and coordinating with other professionals and family members (pp. 100- 129). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon. Villa, R. A. , Thousand, J. S. , Nevin, A. , & Liston, A. (2005). Successful inclusive practices in middle and secondary schools. American Secondary Education, 33(3), 33-50. Whittaker, C. R. , Salend, S. J. , & Duhaney, D. (2001). Creating instructional rubrics for inclusive classrooms. Teaching Exceptional Children, 34(2), 8-13. AUTHOR JAMIE L. WORRELL is a Doctoral Student at Florida Atlantic University, Exceptional Student Education and teaches Exceptional Students in Howell L.
Watkins Middle School at Palm Beach Gardens, FL. Copyright American Secondary Education Spring 2008 Provided by ProQuest Information and Learning Company. All rights Reserved Bibliography for: “HOW SECONDARY SCHOOLS CAN AVOID THE SEVEN DEADLY SCHOOL “SINS” OF INCLUSION” Worrell, Jamie L “HOW SECONDARY SCHOOLS CAN AVOID THE SEVEN DEADLY SCHOOL “SINS” OF INCLUSION”. American Secondary Education. FindArticles. com. 09 Mar, 2010. http://findarticles. com/p/articles/mi_7452/is_200804/ai_n32277449/ Copyright American Secondary Education Spring 2008 Provided by ProQuest Information and Learning Company. All rights Reserved
? TANGLEWOOD CASEBOOK for use with STAFFING ORGANIZATIONS ? ? 6th Ed. Kammeyer-Mueller | | TANGLEWOOD CASEBOOK To accompany Staffing Organizations, sixth edition, 2009. Prepared by John Kammeyer-Mueller Warrington College of Business University of Florida Gainesville, Florida Telephone: 352-392-0108 E-mail: [email protected] edu Copyright ©2009 Mendota House, Inc. Herbert G. Heneman III President Telephone: 608-233-4417 E-mail: [email protected] wisc. edu |INTRODUCTION TO THE CASE CONCEPT |
Rationale for the Tanglewood Case Many of the most important lessons in business education involve learning how to place academic concepts in a work setting. For applied topics, like staffing, learning how concepts are applied in the world of work also allow us see how the course is relevant to our own lives. The use of these cases will serve as a bridge between the major themes in the textbook Staffing Organizations and the problems faced by managers on a daily basis. The Tanglewood case is closely intertwined with textbook concepts.
Most assignments in the case require reference to specific tables and examples in the book. After completing these cases, you will be much more able to understand and apply the material in the textbook. With this in mind, it should be noted that the cases are designed to correspond with the types of information found in work environments. This means that for many important decisions, the right answers will not always be easy to detect, there will be more than one correct solution, and often the very information that would make decisions easy is missing.
Remember that ambiguity in any case corresponds to reality; although it may be frustrating at first, you should remember that business problems are themselves often confusing and require important judgment calls that don’t have any single “right” answer. Successful Case Performance Successful case performance involves several key concepts. Each case should be prepared in the form of a report to be given to the top management team at Tanglewood department stores. The following guidelines for successful case performance are useful for checking your work: 1.
Is the report easy to read? a. Correct grammatical errors and eliminate confusing sentences. b. Break the text into subheadings so it is easy for the reader to find relevant information. c. Explain your statistics in a way that an intelligent reader who is not familiar with them could understand what is being reported. d. Present tables cleanly with relevant data highlighted for the reader and with minimal extraneous information. e. Explain why you chose to use information and data in the way that you did. 2. Are your final recommendations and answers sensible? a.
The final recommendations should be presented in a clear, succinct manner. b. The recommendations should be feasible and directly related to the information provided to the information provided in the case. c. Recommendation should take potential problems into account. |CASE ONE: TANGLEWOOD STORES AND STAFFING STRATEGY | Case one principles: 1. You will first assess the current operating environment for Tanglewood in terms of it competitors, structure, employees, culture, values, and human resources function. 2.
Then you will then develop recommendations for how the organization should staff its operations, focusing on strategic decisions pertaining to staffing levels and quality. Section Objectives The goal of this section is to help you learn more about the basic environmental concerns the Tanglewood Department Store chain is facing. This information will help you to understand how competition, strategy, and culture jointly inform the effective development of a selection plan. Organization Overview and Mission Tanglewood is a chain of general retail stores featuring items such as clothing, appliances, electronics, and home decor.
The company operates in the moderate price niche, targeting middle- and upper-income customers. Tanglewood’s strategic distinction is an “outdoors” theme, with a large camping and outdoor living section in every store. The store also distinguishes itself by its simple, elegant, and uncluttered design concepts for the store and their in-house products. The company’s mission statement is: |Tanglewood will be the best department store for customers seeking quality, durability, and value for all aspects of their active| |lives. We are committed as a company to providing maximum value to our customers, shareholders, and employees.
We will accomplish| |this goal by adhering to the core values of responsible financial management, clear and honest communication, and always keeping | |performance and customer service in the forefront. | Tanglewood was originally founded in 1975 by best friends Tanner Emerson and Thurston Wood. The initial concept was a single store in Spokane Washington, named TannerWood, which sold a combination of outdoor clothing and equipment that the pair had designed themselves. The employee handbook notes that, “Tanner and Thurston financed their early store plans with credit cards and personal loans from friends and family.
They had so little money that they slept in sleeping bags in the back room and put every penny they made back into the stores. ” The first store’s unique merchandise offering and personable sales staff made them successful quite rapidly, allowing Emerson and Wood to move out of the back room and add several more stores during the late 1970’s. The merchandise offerings expanded over time to incorporate more conventional retail items, while still retaining the elegant, yet outdoors look for the stores overall. Emerson and Wood eventually decided to rename their store chain Tanglewood in 1984.
Much more rapid growth began around this time. As Emerson put it, “we worried for a long time that expanding would compromise our vision of a small, personable shopping experience. We had always wanted to run the type of store that we would love to work and shop at. Around 1984, after we had 10 stores, we realized we had developed a fairly successful blueprint for running stores with a strong base of employee participation, customer satisfaction, and profitability. So we decided to spread out to cover the northwest. ”
During the 1990’s the expansion strategy really took root. Most of the expansion occurred by purchasing other existing stores rather than building new stores. Emerson and Wood had been heavily involved in the management of the stores, but found that increasingly the corporate administration was a more pressing concern. The company arrived at a regional structure for its operations. Emerson and Wood took on the positions of CEO and President of the company, respectively, while a team of regional managers more directly oversee day to day operations.
The company currently has a total of 243 stores open in the states of Washington, Oregon, Northern California, Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, Utah, Nevada, New Mexico, and Arizona. Prior to any further expansion, however, the company needs to consolidate its current management strategy. The process of growth has been very quick in the last 5 years, and has involved buyouts of several smaller chains of department stores. While all the stores under the Tanglewood name have the same basic look, the management styles and human resource (HR) practices still reflect the historical differences between stores.
Wood noted in a recent interview with Business Monthly, “Tanglewood really needs to slow down and take a hard look at our corporate culture. Right now, we need to consolidate and make sure we’re as close to the company’s original mission as we can be. Our success is due entirely to our strong culture—this is something we need to hold on to. ” These concerns have lead Tanglewood to bring in external human resources consultants like you to help centralize the organization’s practices. Another major concern for Tanglewood has been the westward expansion of companies like Kohl’s and Target.
The possibility of more direct competition has lead Tanglewood to critically examine their HR policies and practices. For staffing, in particular, the organization feels there absolutely must be a workforce of committed, qualified individuals who will help carry the Tanglewood philosophy into the future. Competition and Industry The Tanglewood Department Store chain operates in the nondurable general retail industry, which fits into industry 452100 as classified by the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS).
This industry engages in the sale of consumer goods including clothing, small appliances, electronics, and other housewares. The retail industry accounts for over $3 trillion in annual sales. Recent estimates indicate that the retail industry employs approximately 23 million people. A comparison of several top retail stores is presented below. The operating revenues indicate total sales for these organizations, and the compound growth rate tracks changes in the sales for each retail chain.
The financials show that Tanglewood is a moderately sized organization with strong growth potential. | |Operating Revenues |Compound Growth |Employment (in |Number of Stores | | |(in millions) |Rate (%) |1,000s) | | | | |5 yr |1 yr | | | |Dillard’s |8,170 |3. |-2. 6 |54 |330 | |Federated Dept. Stores |15,788 |-0. 3 |-1. 4 |111 |457 | |J. C. Penny |32,347 |24. 4 |21. 8 |147 |1,020 | |Saks |5,911 |10. 2 |-2. 6 |52 |350 | |Tanglewood |7,200 |9. 3 |14. |53 |243 | |WalMart |244,524 | | |ROR (%) |ROA (%) |ROI (%) | |Dillard’s |1. 7 |2. 0 |5. 5 | |Federated Dept. Stores |4. 0 |4. 3 |11. 3 | |J. C. Penny |1. 1 |1. 9 |5. 8 | |Kohl’s |7. |11. 4 |20. 4 | |Saks |1. 2 |1. 5 |3. 1 | |Sears, Roebuck |3. 8 |3. 3 |24. 6 | |Tanglewood |4. 1 |12. 7 |17. 2 | |Target |3. 8 |6. 3 |19. 1 | |WalMart |3. 3 |9. 0 |21. | All three profit ratio figures indicate corporate profitability. ROR is return on revenues = (net income for the past year) / (assets minus liabilities) ROA is return on assets = (net income for the past year) / (average assets) ROI is return on investment = (net income for the past year) / (total stock value) Competitive Response and Strategy The company’s specific niche is similar to that occupied by Kohl’s or Target, appealing to middle- and upper-income consumers looking for convenience and reasonable prices.
This means that Tanglewood uses a layout and provides the same products offered of general merchandise retailers. Tanglewood also focuses on stocking quality products, providing customer service, and a more designer appearance than discount stores. This strategy is further supplemented by the company’s trademark “look” which involves an outdoors theme, complete with real wood decor and use of natural colors. Like its competitors, Tanglewood has developed several proprietary brands of merchandise which are designed to complement its look.
While the actual products are made by subcontractors, Emerson and Wood have personal responsibility for all products that are produced. Their own brands include Burford Kitchen, which includes wood-accented, rustic, sturdy kitchen utensils, and Wilderness Outfitter clothing and camping goods lines. The stores also have emphasized small home electronics, housewares, and bedding accessories. Despite the company’s effort to emphasize its western appearance and theme, there is no shortage of high-technology innovations in the way that Tanglewood operates.
They have worked hard to ensure that their web portals provide a clear guide to merchandise available in the stores. Through their “County Store” concept they have also made their stores a pick-up location for items ordered online. This allows them to utilize their low-cost shipping arrangements to the benefit of customers. Emerson notes, “We have a lot of consumers in places like rural Idaho, who don’t want to drive an hour to one of our stores and then find out what they wanted isn’t available.
The online County Store makes sure that if they want something, we will have it in stock. ” In addition, online shoppers who visit bricks-and-mortar locations also often buy other merchandise in the stores. Organizational Structure The structure of most retail stores is relatively similar, and Tanglewood has essentially evolved to have a structure that looks something like the familiar organizational hierarchy. This appearance is deceptive, because employees at all levels of the corporation are encouraged to make suggestions regarding operations.
More than one major operational change has come from an employee suggestion. Each store is managed by a single individual who has three assistant store managers working beneath him or her. The Assistant Manager for Softlines is in charge of all areas related to clothing and jewelry. The Assistant Manager for Hardlines is in charge of all non-clothing merchandise, including sporting goods, bath, bedding, and home decor. Another way to think of the distinction is that Softlines consists only of things that are worn, while Hardlines consists of nothing that is worn.
The Assistant Manager for Operations and Human Resources is primarily responsible for activities, including security, clerical work, merchandise loading and warehousing, cashiers, and human resources management. Although the Assistant Manager for Operations is technically in charge of the smallest number of employees, this tends to be a more powerful position because it includes more managerial responsibilities, including staffing the store and training new hires.
Department managers are in charge of specific product groups such as electronics, women’s clothing, or shoes. For each shift there is also a designated shift leader who completes most of the same tasks as store associates, but also has some administrative responsibility. Overall, with 1 store manager, 3 assistant managers, 17 department managers, approximately 24 shift leaders, and approximately 170 associates, there are around 215 employees per store. All employees, full or part time, are members of the core work force.
Tanglewood does not extensively use a flexible workforce, such as temporary employees. A core workforce is viewed as essential for the organizational values and culture, described below, that Tanglewood seeks to develop and maintain. [pic] Stores are organized into 12 geographical regions, with approximately 20 stores per region. Each region has a regional manager who oversees operations of the stores. The store managers report directly to the regional managers. There is considerable variation between regional managers in how they run their HR practices.
The tendency for some regional managers to encourage human resources practices which are counter to the Tanglewood philosophy is a major reason that an external consulting firm was brought in to centralize human resources. The breakdown of stores and employment by division is as follows: |Division |Area Covered |Stores |PCs |PCs/S |Employees | |1 |Eastern Washington |25 |3,120,000 124,800 |5,400 | |2 |Western Washington |25 |3,011,000 |120,440 |5,400 | |3 |Northern Oregon |18 |1,850,000 |102,778 |3,900 | |4 |Southern Oregon |16 |1,710,000 |106,875 |3,400 | |5 |Northern California |23 |3,000,000 |130,435 |4,900 | |6 |Idaho |17 |1,366,000 |80,353 |3,700 | |7 |Montana and Wyoming |18 |1,418,000 |78,778 |3,900 | |8 |Colorado |23 |4,550,000 |197,826 |4,900 | |9 |Utah |19 |2,351,000 |123,737 |4,100 | |10 |Nevada |19 |2,241,000 |117,947 |4,100 | |11 |New Mexico |18 |1,875,000 |104,167 |3,900 | |12 |Arizona |22 |5,580,000 |253,636 |4,700 | | |Total |243 | | |52,300 | Note: PCs is the population of the area covered; the abbreviation PC for Tanglewood means “potential customers. ” The PCs/S is the number of potential customers per store. Employee figures are rounded to the nearest hundred. Organizational Culture and Values Whereas many elements of the Tanglewood operational plan have been based on other firms within the retail industry, the company’s culture and values are distinct from most of its major competitors. From its inception, this company has emphasized employee participation and teams. At orientation, every employee hears the philosophy that Wood and Emerson roclaimed as their vision for employee relations, “If you tell someone exactly what to do, you’re only getting half an employee. If you give someone the space to make their own decisions, you’re getting a whole person. ” Most retail stores have a strict hierarchy with assistant store managers providing directives to their subordinates, and most associates’ primarily follow orders. Tanglewood, on the other hand, has allowed each department manager to formulate distinct methods for running their departments in coordination with the employees they supervise. There is still a well-defined ordering of job responsibilities, but efforts are made to involve employees in the decision process when possible.
One of the most important cultural elements of the organization is an emphasis on “straight talk” in all areas of the business. The company provides employees with information on the company’s share price and overall profitability for each quarter, along with other details about company activities. Profit-sharing for all employees is part of the company’s push to encourage employees to think like managers. In addition, mandatory weekly store meetings (one meeting for each shift) give employees a specific time to voice their suggestions for in-store improvements. Associates who make suggestions that are implemented by management receive financial bonuses.
Department managers are also given financial incentives for successfully developing and implementing new policies and procedures, further reinforcing the participatory management style of the company. Every shift is run based on a team concept. While the most senior associate is designated as a shift leader, the other members of the team are encouraged to provide ongoing suggestions. All employees share all tasks, so there are no designated “customer contact” or “display” employees. It is also expected that associates will make themselves available to help the other members of the team. Quarterly performance evaluations include several items specifically reflecting the associates’ interactions with other team members and initiative to improve the department.
Because of the heavy emphasis on employee suggestions, Tanglewood’s upper managers have ample opportunity to observe the leadership and decision making qualities of their associates. This is one of the main portals through which promotion and advancement are achieved. All new employees without retail experience, even those with college degrees who are targeted as having management potential, spend a period of time working in the store as an associate. This is seen as a way of preserving the company’s unique culture and values over time. Human Resources at Tanglewood [pic] The basic structure for human resources at Tanglewood involves both corporate and store-level components.
The corporate Staffing Services function, shown above, is a division of the Human Resources Department. The Staffing Services Director supervises three managers (for the areas of retention, recruiting, and selection), plus an Equal Employment Opportunity Coordinator. The corporate Staffing Services function performs data analysis and design of staffing policies and programs. Data regarding recruiting practices, methods for interviewing, testing and selecting employees, and employee turnover are sent from the individual store to the corporate headquarters. At headquarters, the data are collected and statistically analyzed. Based on these analyses, specific recommendations are provided to the stores.
For example, after data suggested that newspaper advertising for new recruits was becoming less and less cost effective, all stores were given a strong recommendation to switch to an internet-based strategy. As another example, the employee selection specialists in the corporate staffing function developed a format for interviews that is now used as a part of the hiring process for nearly all stores. Each store is responsible for implementing recommendations provided by corporate. The store operations and human resources manager is responsible for overseeing each store’s staffing, training, performance management, and equal employment opportunity practices. As pertains to staffing, the manager f operations and human resources is responsible for planning, recruitment, and initial screening. Department managers interview finalists, then hiring decisions are made in conjunction with the assistant store managers. Promotion decisions up to the department manager level are made within the stores. Regional managers conduct the hiring for store managers, and work with each store’s managers to determine promotions to the assistant store manager. Historically, the corporate staffing function has not been strong. Because of the participatory philosophy of the stores, the role of corporate HR was primarily to act as an advisor to each regional manager. The company’s plans for expansion have led to a change in this philosophy of late.
Emerson’s directive to HR for this year is, “help us to develop a plan, a way of using all our human assets in the service of our philosophy, our customers, and our employees. ” As the company expands, the need for a central planning body in staffing is seen as an important way to maintain the distinctive “flavor” of the Tanglewood experience. In addition, the sheer number of stores means that local leadership is becoming inefficient. Centralization will also serve to create staffing operations efficiencies. Your role Your role within Tanglewood is as an external consultant for staffing services. You will report directly to Donald Penchiala, who is the Staffing Services Director, with final oversight for your work coming from Marilyn Anchley, who is the Vice President for Human Resources.
Both of these individuals were recently hired personally by Emerson and Wood as part of their plan to centralize and improve the human resources function. Penchiala has extensive experience in managing staffing for department stores in New Jersey and New York, while Anchley has worked in a variety of corporate positions in the Pacific Northwest. The reports that you produce will be given to Penchiala and Anchley, who will disseminate them throughout the organization. As such, although Penchiala, Anchley, and other members of the human resources team are generally well versed in the terminology of staffing, the other individuals who read you reports will not be so familiar with the specific staffing terminology.
This means that your reports should not contain excessive staffing terminology, and that when you do use specific staffing terms you should provide a brief explanation. Specific Assignment Details In this assignment you will be concentrating on staffing quantity and staffing quality strategies for Tanglewood. To begin the assignment, refer to Exhibit 1. 7 in the textbook. You will see that the Exhibit indicates a series of strategic staffing decisions: nine pertaining to staffing levels and four pertaining to staffing quality. Donald Penchiala, the Director of Staffing Services, is interested in your opinions about each of these decisions as each pertains to Tanglewood.
Review the textbook material that discusses these thirteen decisions, and the material you have read about Tanglewood. Then consider each of the decisions and briefly indicate which way you think Tanglewood should position itself along the continuum and why. For example, the first decision is to develop or acquire talent. Indicate whether you think it is best for Tanglewood to focus more on acquiring talent internally or externally, and why? Repeat this process for each of the staffing level and staffing quality dimensions. |CASE TWO: | |PLANNING | Case requirements: 1.
Conduct an analysis of Tanglewood’s staffing data and determine if their current staffing practices are sufficient to meet their ongoing needs, or if there will be problems in adequately staffing the organization in the near future. 2. Recommend how Tanglewood should design its overall staffing mission and strategy based on their upcoming needs. 3. Calculate representation statistics for various jobs within a single Tanglewood department store to determine where the most critical problems exist. 4. Recommend what you would do in light of the information you obtain in the calculation of various demographic statistics both for this specific store and for the chain as a whole. Section Objectives
The planning process in staffing involves making forecasts of an organization’s future hiring needs and developing methods the organization can use to meet these needs. The process of planning involves a combination of forecasting labor needs, comparing these needs to the labor availabilities, and determining where gaps exist. After these gaps are identified, general plans for filling these gaps are enacted. Beyond the process of developing objectives for the number of individuals to be hired, planning activities often take the demographic composition of the workforce into consideration. Attending to the demographic breakdown of the workforce is important for a number of reasons. One is to ensure that the company has employees who can understand the perspective of the populations the company serves.
The second reason is to minimize concerns about Equal Employment Opportunity violations. For both purposes, the current workforce can be compared to the demographic characteristics of other individuals who work in similar jobs. Planning for the State of Washington: Forecasting Requirements and Availabilities The Staffing Services Director, Donald Penchiala, has requested your assistance in the completion of an HR planning analysis for the 50 stores in two regional divisions in the state of Washington. After these overall goals are developed for the state, the policy will be disseminated across all 50 individual stores. Data from the individual stores will then be sent to the corporate offices for analysis and re-evaluation.
The basic model for planning includes (1) forecasting labor requirements, (2) forecasting labor availabilities, (3) conducting environmental scans, (4) determining gaps, and (5) developing action plans. These steps are described in your textbook. Conducting an adequate human resources selection plan will require you to take all of these steps. Historical data from these two divisions have been presented in the transition probability matrix. Information on how to read transition matrices is provided in your textbook. The transition probability matrix was developed based on the historical staffing pattern for Washington over the past five years.
A first stage of investigating staffing is to use the previous years’ staffing patterns as a preliminary forecast of labor requirements, the internal availability based on retention, internal promotions, transfers and demotions, and a determination of gaps by subtracting forecasted availabilities from future requirements. Table 1. 1 Markov Analysis Information |Transition probability matrix |Current year | | |(1) |(2) |(3) |(4) |(5) |Exit | |Previo|(1) Store associate |0. 43 |0. 06 |0. 00 |0. 00 |0. 00 |0. 1 | |us | | | | | | | | |year | | | | | | | | | |(2) Shift leader |0. 00 |0. 54 |0. 16 |0. 00 |0. 00 |0. 30 | | |(3) Department manager |0. 00 |0. 00 |0. 64 |0. 06 |0. 00 |0. 30 | | |(4) Assistant store manager |0. 00 |0. 00 |0. 06 |0. 52 |0. 08 |0. 34 | | |(5) Store manager |0. 00 |0. 00 |0. 00 |0. 00 |0. 66 |0. 4 | | | | |Forecast of availabilities |Next year (projected) | | |(1) |(2) |(3) |(4) |(5) |Exit | | | |Current | | | | | | | | |Workforce| | | | | | |Gap analysis |Next year (projected) | | | | |(1) |(2) |(3) |(4) |(5) | | |Year end total |3655 | | | | | | |(column sum) | | | | | | | |External hires needed |4845 | | | | | | |(current workforce-total) | | | | | | Forecasting Labor Requirements The Washington market is very stable for Tanglewood. Most stores have been in existence for 10 or more years, and were indirectly managed by either Emerson or Wood when they were first established. Because of this stability, the estimate for the coming year’s labor requirements is identical to the current year. So, for example, they currently have 1,200 individuals working as shift leader, and expect to need 1,200 individuals to work as shift leaders for the coming year as well. Forecasting Labor Availabilities
One primary source of information for immediate labor availability at Tanglewood is their internal labor market. Table 1. 1 shows that Tanglewood has used internal promotions to fill many openings for the department manager, assistant store manager, and store manager positions. For example, it is projected that 16% of shift leaders will be promoted to the rank of department manager, 6% of department managers will be promoted to be assistant store managers, and 8% of assistant store managers will be promoted to be store managers. However, it also appears that there will need to be considerable external hiring as well, since only 52%-66% of employees stay in the same position over a one year period.
To estimate a labor forecast, the proportion (percentage) of individuals for the next year is multiplied by the current workforce number. For the shift leader, there are 1,200 individuals in the position, of which, 54% will remain for the next year. This means that the projected availability is 1,200 ? 54% = 648. Similarly, 16% of the shift leaders will be promoted to be department managers, so 1,200 ? 16% = 192. Conducting Environmental Scans The environment for staffing managerial employees at Tanglewood in the state of Washington is fairly complex. Externally, there is a consistent supply of qualified individuals in the urban markets of Seattle and Spokane.
Individuals from these urban areas often are transferred to small towns as they move up the promotion chain. However, retail is often seen as an undesirable market for recent college graduates. Many know of retail work experience, and see it (partially correctly) as requiring long hours, low pay, and frequent conflict with lower-level employees. While these factors lessen as individuals move up the hierarchy, many individuals are reluctant to put in several years in the shift leader and department manager positions to be promoted. The labor market in the Pacific Northwest has been relatively “soft” in recent years, meaning that unemployment rates are high and it is usually difficult for individuals to find new jobs. This weakness in the labor arket has made it somewhat easier for Tanglewood to find new candidates for the managerial positions, but recent forecasts suggest that expansion in the professional and managerial sectors of the labor market may reduce the number of individuals available for these jobs. Internally, Tanglewood has relied on its experienced employees as a major source of talent. As noted earlier, the company promotes extensively from within. As a result, managerial employees often have significant experience with the company’s social environment and culture. This internal staffing strategy is seen as a real strength for the company, because the possibility of being promoted is believed to increase retention of lower level employees.
Determining Gaps The current focus of staffing is to fill the vacant positions, although the organization would like to take steps to reduce the turnover rate for many of these jobs as well. During the planning phase targets are set for the number of individuals who need to be hired. The process of turning these estimates into actual employees will be covered in the recruiting phase. There are 1,200 shift leaders currently, so if 648 individuals stay, Tanglewood will need to hire 552 more. The calculation of gaps is demonstrated in Exhibit 3. 9 in the textbook; refer to this when you are determining gaps for Tanglewood. Developing Action Plans
Having developed a picture of the number of individuals Tanglewood will need to fill their positions in the coming year, there are several important decisions to be made regarding how to fill these gaps. The company’s philosophy for filling vacancies is a combination of tactics. Tanglewood has one managerial track that promotes sales associates to be shift leaders, then promotes shift leaders to be department managers, and so on up the managerial hierarchy. An alternative managerial track is bringing in either recent college graduates or individuals who have extensive experience in another store chain directly into the assistant store managerial position.
Regardless of where employees come from, the corporate staffing function endorses a strong commitment to developing long-range relationships with its workers. Many employees initially have difficulty adapting to the unique culture of Tanglewood, so the company is not happy to see experienced employees who have been socialized leave. There are also concerns that having too many employees come and go will dilute the company’s strong culture. There are reasons why the company may consider alternative perspectives on the employment relationship in the near future. First, fluctuations in the economy have meant that the company carries excess employees during some periods of the year, and has a deficit of employees during other periods. There is some seasonal hiring for store associates (e. g. hiring temporary employees for the holiday season in December), but the managerial workforce numbers are typically fixed. Second, to preserve the company’s culture, some have suggested having all new managerial employees spend at least a little time in the Washington stores to get a sense of how the stores originally worked. These assignments would be short term in nature and would probably require a more contingent outlook for the employees they supervise. Representation Concerns for the Flagship Store in Spokane The problem of selection planning is made considerably more complex because of Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) requirements that fall on organizations that do business with the federal government.
Because several Tanglewood locations are near military bases or government offices which have expense accounts for general merchandise items at Tanglewood, all staffing must be done consistent with the OFCCP affirmative action requirements. In the current case, Tanglewood needs to use information from their staffing records to examine whether the company has a disparity in outcomes for different groups of employees. When the proportion of protected classes being hired or currently employed falls below the proportion in the labor market, this may indicate intentional or unintentional discrimination in hiring and promotions that will need to be addressed through affirmative action planning.
There are also growing concerns within the organization that a combination of rapid growth and high turnover threaten to create real problems in terms of the demographic breakdown of employees at the organization. Acting as part of a team of staffing professionals, you have been asked to analyze the hiring and promotion activities of Tanglewood as they relate to the issue of disparate impact. The first level of disparate impact analyses for the purposes of OFCCP reporting and affirmative action planning are always done at the establishment level. An establishment, for Tanglewood, is a single store. This analysis will concern the corporate flagship store in Spokane, Washington. This is the largest location within the Tanglewood chain and serves as an example for all other locations.
The store has approximately 75% more employees than an average location, making for a total of 30 department managers, 42 shift leaders, and 300 store associates. There are five assistant store managers and one store manager. The primary concern for representation data is in the groups of department managers, shift leaders, and store associates. To assess the problem of discrimination, data from the previous year’s employees stocks in Spokane were assembled. The data on the next page are broken into two tables. The first shows the company’s current employee availability data, and the second provides a template for comparing incumbency to availability. Analyzing utilization of protected classes from the labor market requires comparing the availability of protected classes (i. e. the proportion of the available work force who are members of protected classes) to the utilization of protected classes (i. e. , the proportion of those hired or employed who are members of protected classes) for each job. You can find additional information on this topic in your textbook. In a stock analysis, data from the Census are used to determine how many people in a certain region are available to do the job (including those currently employed in similar jobs). The census data for the current analysis comes from the Bureau of the Census EEO data tool (http://www. census. gov/eeo2000/), which was specifically designed by the government for the purpose of conducting EEO analyses.
The appropriate data can be found through the following steps: 1) Go to the website above 2) Indicate that you want data from census occupation codes and click “next” 3) Indicate that you want data for metropolitan areas and click “next” 4) Indicate that you want data for Spokane, WA and click “next” 5) Find the appropriate occupation codes as described below, and “Show Detailed Race/Ethnicity Categories” 6) The appropriate table should be displayed. Store associates and shift leaders are considered for the present analysis, as retail salespersons, while department managers are direct supervisors of retail salespersons. The Procedure for Developing an Affirmative Action Plan
Tanglewood’s internal staffing policy as recently articulated from central management is to retain as close a correspondence between their current representation and the available workforce. The primary goal for this year is to focus attention on achieving better numbers for gender representation, but they would like to examine other demographic groups in the future. The source for the external data in all cases is from the Census data described earlier. The source for internal data is the current workforce of the flagship store. To determine the availability for each job category, the raw statistics for percentage of female and minority employees are multiplied by the value weight, and then these weighted statistics are added together within each job category. Table 1. 2 Determining Availability | |Raw Statistics |Value |Weighted Statistics | | | | |weight | | | | |Female |Minority | |Female |Minority | |Store associates |External |53. 1% |7. 9% |100% |53. 1% |7. 9% | | | | | | | | | |Shift |Internal |44. 3% |6. 7% |92. % |41. 0% |6. 2% | |Leaders |External |53. 1% |7. 9% | 7. 6% | 4. 0% |0. 6% | | |Total | | | |45. 0% |6. 8% | | | | | | | | | |Department |Internal |31. 0% |4. 8% |65. 7% |20. 4% |3. 2% | |manager |External |39. 4% |6. 7% |34. 3% |13. 5% |2. % | | |Total | | | |33. 9% |5. 5% | The availability data are taken from Table 1. 2 and then used for determining if some demographic groups are underrepresented in the workforce of the flagship store, and also for developing placement goals. A shortage exists if there is a discrepancy between the current workforce and the available workforce as calculated by the ratio of the current workforce divided by the current workforce. As shown in Exhibit 3. 18 in your textbook, if the incumbency percent is below 80%, the organization will want to establish a goal of moving their demographic representation in line with the available workforce.
To estimate this proportion, the incumbency for females is divided by the availability for females, and the incumbency for minorities is divided by the availability for minorities. Table 1. 3 Comparing Incumbency to Availability and Annual Placement Goals | |Female |Female |Incumbency |If Yes, Goal|Minority |Minority |Incumbency |If Yes, Goal | | |Incumbency |Availability |percent? |for Females |Incumbency |Availability |percent? |for Minorities | | | | |Establish goal? | | | |Establish goal? | | |Store associates |44. % |53. 1% |83. 5% | |6. 7% |7. 9% |84. 8% | | | | | |No goal | | | |No goal | | |Shift leaders |31. 0% |45. 0% |68. 9% |45. 0% |4. 8% |6. 8% |70. 6% |6. 8% | | | | |Set goal | | | |Set goal | | |Department manager |26. 7% |33. % |78. 8% |33. 9% |5. 0% |5. 5% |90. 9% | | | | | |Set goal | | | |No goal | | Specific Assignment Details For the store manager group, you will analyze the information and prepare a report showing the results of the Markov analysis and the EEO investigation. The Director asked you to address these questions in your written report: 1. Currently the organization expects that their forecast for labor requirements is essentially constant from the previous year.
Based on this assumption complete the five stages of the planning process: a. Currently the organization expects that their forecast for labor requirements is essentially constant from the previous year. This means the forecast for next year will be taken as given. b. Fill in the empty cells in the forecast of labor availabilities in Table 1. 1. c. Conduct an environmental scan. Based on the environmental data, what factors in the environment suggest Tanglewood might have difficulty filling their vacancies in the future? d. Compute year end totals for each job in Table 1. 1 and do a gap analysis to determine where shortages will occur in the next year. e.
Develop a preliminary statement of the action plan for hiring for Washington next year. This should be an overview of the number of individuals needed to meet projected staffing levels for various positions that can be given to store managers. Make sure that your recommendations take the strategic staffing levels issues from the introductory case into account. 2. Examine the percentages of employee representation across demographic categories for Tanglewood and the available labor market for Table 1. 3. Are there any particular classes or jobs where the representation within Tanglewood appears to be out of line with the available workforce? What does the pattern suggest to you? 3.
Based on your analysis and the affirmative action plan, do you think the company should engage in a specific strategy to change their recruiting and promotion practices? Do you think it is realistic for the company to try to meet their affirmative action goals in this process in a single year? What are the pros and cons of using internal promotions vs. external hiring to rectify the problems with gender and ethnicity representation in supervisory positions? 4. In addition to the specific targets for employee representation for the Spokane flagship location, Tanglewood wants to use this opportunity to establish estimates for the entire chain’s staffing policy regarding demographic representation of the workforce. How do you think individual stores can respond to overarching organizational objectives?
Prepare a memo to be disseminated to the individual stores that gives a sense of your targets for the organization as a whole, and also gives the stores advice on how they can assist in narrowing any representation gaps you find through their recruiting, hiring, and promotion practices. |CASE THREE: | |RECRUITING | Case requirements: 1. Generate a recruiting guide for the store associate job. 2. Describe the relative advantages of open versus targeted recruiting for Tanglewood. 3. Evaluate data related to Tanglewood’s historical recruiting methods to determine the effectiveness for each method. 4.
Using the information obtained from steps one and two, provide recommendations for how Tanglewood should recruit employees in the future. Case Objectives Recruiting is the first stage in which organizational plans for staffing come into contact with the labor market for employees. Before making any new recruiting effort, an organization needs to carefully consider the methods available and balance out the costs of each method with the organization’s needs. The recruiting case provides an opportunity to see how staffing managers develop plans for recruiting efforts. You will develop a recruiting strategy and a recruiting guide for the store associate job.
The case also demonstrates how you can use organizational data to determine what the best methods for recruiting are. Finally, you will have an opportunity to develop various forms of recruiting messages that will encourage individuals to apply for jobs as sales associates at Tanglewood. Primary Concerns Regarding Recruiting Like any retail organization, there is a constant need for new employees at Tanglewood because of turnover. In a typical year, approximately 50% of the sales associates will turnover. The process of recruiting is therefore of great concern for managers in the field. However, up to this point, the organization has not had any centralized method for recruiting new employees.
As part of the consolidation across stores, Tanglewood is now encouraging a systematic review of their recruiting policies that will ultimately result in a better recruiting system for store associates. Staffing services has made very few decisions regarding how recruiting should proceed. Each store has been encouraged to ensure that their recruiting methods attract a culturally diverse group of applicants. Beyond this general directive from the corporate offices, however, there is not very much direction for stores regarding how they should be recruiting new store associates. Regional managers occasionally discuss ideas for how to recruit new employees, but as you will see, they have some very distinct methods for recruiting in practice. Methods of Recruiting Available
There are five primary methods of recruiting store associates used at Tanglewood in Washington and Oregon. For additional information regarding these sources of recruiting check your textbook, where advantages and disadvantages of each method are described in greater detail. Media The most traditional method for recruiting used by Tanglewood is media advertising, such as print, radio, and television advertising sources, coupled with respondents filling out a standardized job application. This process is accessible through either the internet or an automated telephone application process. This allows interested individuals to apply without actually having to go into the stores.
Paper applications are still available at stores. Media expenses are a combination of initially setting up a contact with a media outlet, developing an advertisement, and the price of processing materials and interviews for each applicant. Referrals Employees are encouraged to refer their friends to apply for work at Tanglewood as well. The referral process is enhanced by providing current employees with $100 for each friend they refer who is hired. Referral expenses are a combination of creating and maintaining records, the price of processing materials and interviews for each applicant, and the payment for each individual who is hired. Kiosk
An alternative method of recruiting that minimizes processing costs is to have a computerized kiosk in the main entrance to the stores. The kiosks look somewhat like ATM machines, and feature a fully functioning keyboard and touch-screens. Unlike media advertisements and internet applications (which are limited by the speed of internet connections and the fact that not all potential applicants have ready internet access), the kiosks provide opportunities for applicants to watch short videos explaining what the job entails. Because the entire application process is completed electronically and scored automatically, there is no material cost, although there is still an initial processing and interview cost. Each kiosk costs approximately $40,000. State Job Services
In urban markets with higher pools of availability of unemployed individuals, state job services have also been used occasionally to find new applicants. The employment service is provided with a set of qualifications required for work, and the employment services agency assists in providing initial screening and hiring recommendations. Training is partially subsidized through tax incentives. In areas which have less centralized population, the job service option is less feasible. Essentially, the cost of the job service is for creating and maintaining an initial contact, with other costs being roughly half of those for traditional media sites. Staffing Agency One method that has been explored recently is the use of an external staffing agency.
Essentially, this is outsourcing the actual selection of candidates to StoreStaff, which is a large organization that specializes in locating workers for the retail industry. Many organizations use StoreStaff to find temporary employees, or provide trial employment to StoreStaff employees as part of a temporary-to-permanent arrangement, but for Tanglewood, individuals recruited through StoreStaff are directly hired as part of the core workforce. Because StoreStaff provides some training to their pool of candidates, they are less expensive to train, but the overhead costs of providing money to StoreStaff for locating and screening these candidates does make this method quite costly. The Situation at Tanglewood – Four Regions, Four Recruitment Policies
As noted in the introduction, decision making for staffing activities has recently become centralized within the staffing services division. A major question that arises as a result of this consolidation is how to determine which HR policies should be left in the hands of each individual location, and how much should be taken over by corporate HR. The recruiting function is of particular interest since there is such wide dispersion in how individuals are recruited. Data is available from the divisions in the form of numerical estimates of costs per individual processed, employee retention, performance on a pre-hire work-sample test which is given to all employees, and some informal interview data.
Tanglewood Department stores were first established in the western area of Washington and then moved southwards into Oregon, then spread eastwards into the Rocky Mountain States. Many of the policies implemented in the Western Washington locations were applied directly in the Rocky Mountain States. However, because the initial expansion was less well-coordinated, there is substantial variety in the staffing policies being followed in the stores in Washington and Oregon. Western Washington (Region 1) It has historically been the largest and most profitable area, with a total of 25 stores in the region centered around Seattle. In fitting with the organization’s founding philosophy, the stores in Western Washington are run largely autonomously.
The current head of the Western Washington division advocates a philosophy of individual autonomy and empowerment. Generally this division has been viewed as highly committed to the core corporate culture, although this passion for the mission has sometimes meant paying less attention to careful management of financial concerns. Because of its size and the large amounts of financial resources available, leadership of this division has been one of the most powerful positions within the organization. Western Washington uses a variety of recruiting methods. The primary methods of recruiting are referrals from current employees. In the Seattle area, the division also makes heavy use of job services.
Over time traditional media methods of recruiting have been reduced, but are still used occasionally. Finally, to fill in those positions that are not met with the other three methods, the kiosk method is used. Eastern Washington (Region 2) This was where the company began. The split of Washington into Eastern and Western divisions came early in the store’s history, but their physical proximity and high overlap between management across the areas has lead to very similar management styles. The Eastern Washington division is approximately the same size as Western Washington, with 25 total stores. However, with the exception of the area around Spokane, the majority of this area is much more rural.
To a large extent, the Eastern Washington division pioneered all the policies used by Western Washington, although the overall policies have been tempered by geographical differences. The job service method has not been successfully implemented on a wide scale. Instead of using this method, this division uses more traditional media advertising. Northern Oregon (Region 3) Unlike Western Washington, there is a very different philosophy of operations in Northern Oregon. Northern Oregon has been run very “professionally” for years, with most decisions carefully weighted against their financial consequences. Administrative decision making is hierarchical, with specific tasks assigned at each level of the organization’s structure.
The current top administrator for this area, Steven McDougal, has a reputation for being a technocrat, and has largely worked to maintain the system he inherited when he first took over five years ago. There are 18 stores in this region. The recruiting methods of the Northern Oregon division fall into three major categories. The main methods are media and in-store kiosks. This division has also used staffing agencies lately. The division explicitly rejects the use of employee referrals, claiming that the use of signing bonuses leads to the hiring of unqualified individuals who are selected without sufficient qualifications due to favoritism. Southern Oregon (Region 4)
Southern Oregon is unique among the areas within the Pacific Northwest in that it has remained relatively small, with only 16 stores in the division mostly concentrated in the Eugene area. However, there is also a growing push to increase concentration in Southern Oregon as a first step to establishing more stores in Northern California. This area is very innovative across the board in its human resources practices. The innovative character of Southern Oregon is reflected in their recruiting practices. They have relied primarily on a combination of staffing agencies, referrals, and kiosk advertising. All three of these methods were first tried in this region. Quantitative data
Data are available from the four divisions of the organization on the number of individuals who applied for work, the number of individuals who are qualified for the position, the number who actually receive job offers and accept them, and the number of number of individuals who remain with the organization at the 6 and 12 month point after hire. Complete data on the recruiting yields for the four divisions is contained in Appendix B. Table 2. 1 Estimated costs for recruiting methods |Fixed costs |Media |Referrals |Kiosk |Job service |Agency | |Cost of setup (per site) |$ 10,000. 00 |$ 10,000. 00 |$ 40,000. 00 |$ 10,000. 0 |$ 50,000 | | | | | | | | |Variable costs | | | | | | |Materials cost per applicant |$ 10. 00 |$ 10. 00 |$ 1. 00 |$ 5. 00 |$ 10 | |Processing cost per applicant |$ 30. 00 |$ 30. 00 |$ 30. 00 |$ 15. 00 |$ 30 | |Additional pre-hire costs |$ 20. 00 |$ 120. 00 |$ 20. 00 |$ – |$ 20. 00 | |Orientation and training |$ 2,000. 00 |$ 2,000. 0 |$ 2,000. 00 |$ 1,000 |$ 1,000. 00 | Another Angle on Recruitment: Manager Focus Groups As part of the information gathering process, large scale focus groups have been conducted with department managers. Tanglewood contacted a market research firm to conduct the focus groups, and Tanglewood provided a detailed summary of the major findings. While managers differed considerably in their perceptions of the effectiveness of the different methods, their core concerns were generally quite similar, and can be grouped into four major categories: 1. The most pressing concern for many managers is reducing employee turnover.
Although Tanglewood has typical retention rates for a retail chain, the importance of culture and cooperation in the Tanglewood philosophy means that new employees often are not fully integrated into the company’s culture until several months have passed. In short, typical retail turnover is not acceptable for Tanglewood. This is seen as an especially dangerous situation as the company expands, since it threatens to undermine the unique elements of the company’s approach to retail. 2. There is an excessive lag between the initial contact between many applicants and the actual hiring decision, leading many qualified individuals to drop out of the process. A few managers have suggested that finding a way to concent
The Pinocchio by Carlo Collodi is an adventurous story about a naughty wooden puppet who wanted to be a real boy and how he became more and more wise throughout his adventures. Mr. Cherry, who is a carpenter, found a piece of wood that laughed and cried like a child. Since he can’t control this naughty wood he gives the piece of wood to his friend Geppetto who plans to make a marvelous puppet that can dance, fence and turn somersaults in the air. Geppetto goes home and makes his puppet. He calls him Pinocchio. Unfortunately, the puppet gets into mischief. He tells a lie and made his father went to the jail.
He talks with a talking-cricket who gives him some advices, but this naughty child does not like to be corrected by those who are wiser than they are. When he comes back home, he is very hungry, but he can’t find any food. He feels tired and falls asleep with his feet on a brazier. When he wakes up in the morning, he finds his feet have burnt off. Meanwhile Geppetto comes home and gives Pinocchio the breakfast that the poor man had bought for himself. Then, he makes Pinocchio new feet and sells his own coat to buy him a primer. Sadly, Pinocchio sells his primer that he wants to go and see the marionettes.
In the marionettes, the puppets recognize Pinocchio as one of them and are please to him. Suddenly a Fire-eater, who is the showman, appears in the midst of their joy and Pinocchio almost comes to a bad end. Fire-eater sneezes and pardons Pinocchio, who latter save the live of his friend, Harlequin. Fire-eater gives Pinocchio five pieces of gold to take to his father, but Pinocchio is deceived by the fox and the cat and goes away with them. Pinocchio does not listen to the good advice of the talking cricket which tells him to go back home again and meets the assassins. The assassins follow Pinocchio and having caught him.
They hang him on a branch of the big oak tree. Luckily, a beautiful blue-haired child saves the puppet. She puts him in bed and calls three doctors to know whether he is alive or dead. The doctors give him some medicines and sugar. Pinocchio only eats the sugar, but he does not want to take the medicines. However when he sees the grave-diggers coming to carry him away, he takes it. After that, he tells a lie and his nose will grow longer as punishment. Pinocchio again sees the fox and the cat and goes with them to sow his money in the Field of Miracles, where doubles the money he sows.
At last, he loses all his money and he is sent to prison where he spends four mouths. When Pinocchio is freed from the prison he sets out for the fairy’s house, but on the way he meets a horrible serpent and afterwards he is caught in a trap. Pinocchio is captured by a peasant who makes him work as a watchdog for his poultry yard. At the mid-night, he discovers the thieves and as a reward for his faithfulness, he is set free. After he arrives to the fairy’s house, he finds that the fairy has dead. He weeps for the death of the beautiful blue-haired child.
Then he meets a pigeon who carries him to the seashore where he dives into the water to save his father. He arrives at a Busy Bee Island and finds the fairy again. Pinocchio promises the fairy to be good and study, because he is tired of being a puppet and wishes to become a really good boy. Once again, Pinocchio listens to his bad schoolmates and goes to the seashore to see the terrible shark. After arriving, they can’t find any shark and a great battle has happened between him and his friends. During the battle, one of them is wounded and Pinocchio is arrested and he is in danger of being fried as a fish.
Luckily, he is saved by a dog and he goes back to the fairy’s house. She promises him that the next day he will no longer be a puppet, but a boy. Pinocchio goes to find his friends and celebrates. He finds his best friend, Lampwick, who is going to Playland. It is a place where has no school, no master, no book, but only playgrounds. Pinocchio likes it so much that he follows Lampwick and he spends five months there. One day, Pinocchio finds two donkey’s ears on his head and he becomes a real donkey after an hour.
As Pinocchio became a real donkey, he is sold to the manager of a show and learns how to dance and jump through a hoop, but he is lamped one evening. Then, he is bought by a man who decides to make a drum of his skin. Pinocchio is thrown into the sea and eaten by the fishes and becomes a puppet again. But while swimming towards dry land he is swallowed by a terrible shark. In the body of the shark he finds his father, Geppetto and he saves himself and his father. He starts working and studying very hard and looks after his father.
Finally, Pinocchio ceases to be a puppet and becomes a real boy. Pinocchio is a very naughty boy, he always does not listen to others’ advices. Fortunately, he is very lucky that every time he is at risk, he meets someone to save his life. During reading this book, I am very angry about his foolish thought. He has a lot of chance to be a good boy, but he has not taken anyone. Also, the ending is a little bit too short and too easy for him to be a real boy. However, it is a really nice book to read and learn from his silly behavior. I recommend all the children to read this book at least once.
Teamwork Kara Larcom HCA 230 8/29/2010 Jennifer Planz Teamwork As a delegated leader I am asked to solve an issue that is currently affecting the billing department of the facility I work in. The billing department need codes and important that they are not receiving. The doctor needs to be reimbursed for medical care on a patient. The facility I work in needs me to get this done in order to speed up production. This leaves me in charge of picking a team and promoting effective teamwork in order to resolve the current conflict.
I will choose the members of my team by finding individuals who are all trying to achieve the same objective. In this case, it would be the billing specialist, the doctor, myself and a communication specialist to make it go more smoothly. All of us are involved in this conflict on one way or another and need to participate together in order for all parties to be satisfied. I will promote effective teamwork by having the communication specialist involved. Teamwork can also be promoted by establishing ground rules for all team players. Making sure all players knew the nature, importance and cause of the conflict problem.
Making sure everyone was aware that conflict is a natural part of life is a way to promote effective teamwork. Also offering social support, workshops, and providing leadership training. Offering social support can help soothe feelings and encourage more social support. It also reduces the risks and causes of caregivers being stressed, burned-out, and feelings of isolation. Offering workshops to employees for building their skills and help them to assume new roles in organization and managing conflict that is involved in with change and teamwork. Leadership training can vary on a range of topics.
The ones I like that I would use are managing conflict, handling complaints, hospitality, and writing effective memo and releases. I feel this would be good starting training sessions for soon to be leaders or those already in leadership positions. Communication skills are important because they affect the performance of every employee and not just leaders. The basic communication skills are both essential and necessary to effectively care for someone. Training and sessions are a great way to enhance or upgrade those skills in order to perfect these skills and become a better professional.
Case Study on “Oticon’s No-Cubicle Culture” How and why did Lars Kolind change the way Oticon organized and controlled its employees? Could it be that Lars Kolind used his mathematical background and put quantitative management to run the company or did he use the management practices of Mary Follett or Henri Fayol? Mr. Kolind, a corporate renegade wanted change from the standard ways of management. Lars wanted equity, by changing the way the company was ran and giving the employees control over themselves and their projects the change was possible.
The negative factors that are being explained are being cramped up in tight cubicles. Also, having managers that are in total control reduced the freedom that Laras was looking for. To attract and retain top engineers and increase profit a new management style was needed. There are several new kinds of skills and ways of working that managers and employees needed to learn in order to perform well in Oticon’s new culture?
The managers need to use the following principles of management: initiative, so that the innovative and creativity of the employees can begin; unity of command, which is where one person will give orders instead of many managers. Managers and employees alike will have to learn to deal with the loss of privacy due to the openness of the new work area; working independently will have to be dealt with since projects will not be assigned. There are several ways of working related to those talked about in the chapter, such as those suggested by Fayol and Follett.
Mary Follett’s theories were the ones closely associated with the Laras’s management change. Follett believed that employers overlooked what employees had to offer but given the opportunity would exercise initiative daily while at work. Work development should also have the involvement of the employees since the work is done by employees and who better knows the job. Lastly, it is also possible that the Hawthorne effect had some factor since it suggests that employee’s attitudes towards their manager affects the performance. References Jones, G. (2009). Contemporary management. New York: McGraw-Hill Irwin
Wars, conflicts and deaths between the Christians, pagans and the Jews were not so strange for me anymore. Quite unfamiliar, however, was the story of Hystia and her great findings. I pictured women in the ancient times as submissive, simple-minded, gentle and defenceless that I was quite shocked when I first learned that Hystia was a philosopher and a great teacher. I regretted that idea in the end because it was like thinking so lowly of earlier women. But to think that a woman, found the answer on a long-debated question about the orbit of the earth, was quite a controversy.
Of course, many people believed that it was Keppler who discovered the elliptical shape of the orbit, but actually it was already answered way, way back in the time of great kings and not great scientists. It was just so sad because during that time people were not strong enough to accept philosophy and science. Instead they depend solely on their religion that they disregarded the essential questions of life and eventually even the scriptures of their own religion.
Even the Christians, whose main teachings are forgiveness, love and understanding, also killed other people for power and authority. I am a Christian, and it was quite disappointing for me to learn that my fore-fathers were hypocrites. They taught people to do the right thing, even though they themselves resort to death when their own security was threatened. After I watched the movie, I am thankful and amused at the same time. I was amused because of the differences in the past and the present in accordance to our beliefs.
And thankful because I lived here, at a time where we are not tied by our own differences. Discrimination may still be wide spread but more people began to learn that all of us are unique. Various philosophies, opinions and even religions are accepted and respected. Different people could already live in harmony with each other. And it was nice to think that people evolved in a good way where freedom and democracy prevails, where scientists could already study science as long as they want. The movie indeed made an impact on me, all as a Christian, a woman and of course, a human.
How Professional Wrestling Started Wendy Mayhue Axia College of University of Phoenix How Professional Wrestling Started How did Pro wrestling get it start? Wrestling goes way back to the ancient Greek and Roman Empire have given us one of the most entertaining and often-controversial sports we enjoy today. Professional wrestling is has evolved greatly since the days of the ancient Greek and Romans. The Greek used a form of wrestling called freestyle while the Romans were called Greco-Roman (Grabianowski 2008).
Pro Wrestling started as side shows at carnivals as strongmen, who would challenge anyone to beat him in the ring or even to last 10 or more minutes with him. Challenges almost never won the money, since the strong man had helpers that would cheat to ensure that he would win. Then in the 1800s, promoters moved wrestling in arenas. In 1901 the National Wresting Association (NWA) formed. Then after World War II, the NWA divided into regional leagues. The Northeast federation was known as the Worldwide Wrestling Federation, what we know today as the World Wrestling Entertainment (Grabianowski 2008).
Professional wrestling is it real or is it fake? One needs to decide for there selves. Unlike Amateurs, professional wrestlers are paid Professional wrestlers’ tend to be more skilled and pro wrestlers are paid to do what they do. Moreover, paid well by some of the top Wrestling Federations. Amateur wrestlers on the other had are not. Many amateur wrestlers have made there way into pro wrestling, like Kurt Angle and Shelton Benjamin. Kurt has won an Olympic gold medal in freestyle wrestling in 1996. Shelton is a two-time All-American heavyweight wrestler.
Both men have been at the top of the ladder in the pro wrestling business. A sporting commission regulates amateur wrestling. The job of the sporting commission is to ensure that the amateur wrestlers are following the rules and regulations. In pro wrestling is unregulated. In the old days, the league owners realized they could avoid hassle by naming their shows entertainment and not a competitive sport. So one may ask, is pro wrestling real or fake? Well, the plot or storylines are predetermined and the moves are choreographed. The wrestlers are not truly trying to injure each other, the wrestlers are just following a script.
Although, some may have hard feelings toward there opponent they are just like one big family out there doing a job to make the fans cheer them or even boo them. Many wrestlers are exceptional athletes; they work out for hours in the gym with to maintain there physical condition. Pro wrestlers are like movie stunt men. They perform a skit in the ring to entertain the fans. This is called a work. A work is pro wrestling lingo for a storyline. Professional Wrestling Lingo Pro wrestling has its own language. A few terms that one may have heard wrestlers use are, Kafabe, heel, work, face, house show, sell, and angle.
A Kafabe is an old carnival term. Which in wrestling refers to the illusion of the characters and storylines are real. Which until a few years ago many wrestlers did not break Kafabe outside of the ring while in public. A heel is a villain, who is designed to make fans hate and boo them. A face it the good person, the one fans love to cheer and emulate. Some of the heels that are known today are Snitsky, Mike Knox, The Undertaker, and The Big Show. Some faces would be Batista, Shawn Michaels, John Cena, and HHH. These wrestlers perform in a house show.
A house show is an event not televised whereas a televised event is a live event. Sell is when a wrestler makes a painful move look real. An angle is part of and ongoing plot or part of the script. A wrestler may be involved in several angles at one time. An example: the current World Heavy Weight Champion John Cena is defending his belt against Chris Jericho, and he has Batista and Randy Orton threatening to challenge him for the title also. Cena is then involved in three storylines or angles here. One with Jericho, one with Batista, and one with Orton. Cena will have several works with each of these three wrestlers.
He will defend his title continuously, until he looses it. Rules of Pro Wrestling An important thing about the rule to professional wrestling is that they can be changed, disregarded, made up on the spot, and broken at anytime, and by anyone. This can and does cause controversy for many of the pro wrestlers in there matches. Another important thing is to win the match. There are several ways to do this. A wrestler can win a match by pin-fall, which is the standard way to win a match. Another way is one-fall, which is where one wrestler’s shoulders are pinned to the mat for a count of three.
The there is the three-fall, where a wrestler has to win two out of three matches to win. There is also the submission win. The submission is when one wrestler is put into a submission hold, a maneuver that locks a wrestler into a painful position, which makes the wrestler give up or tap out. There is also the disqualification. This type of match is when a wrestler stands outside the ring to long and is counted out, or when a wrestler gets caught using a foreign object like a chair or steel step on their opponent or another wrestler interferes on in the match.
The wrestlers work with each other to ensure that they will not hurt each other. When the wrestlers are talking in the ring, they are really talking to each other about what moves to do next. The referrers are also involved in this process, checking to see if the each wrestler is ok and telling them how much time is left in the match. One wrestler may the opponent that he is going to go up to the top ropes for a frog splash. Then the other wrestler will know that he needs to be in the right position so that the other wrestler will not get hurt.
Professional Wrestling Moves Professional wrestlers use many moves while they are in the ring to convey they storylines when they are in the ring. Many wrestlers have signature moves. Like Batista’s is the Batista Bomb. This is a power bomb. The Under Taker uses a Pile driver, which he calls a Tombstone Pile diver, this is a move in which the wrestler grabs his opponent, turns him upside-down and drops into a sitting or kneeling position, driving the opponent’s head into the mat.
This move can be very dangerous if not performed properly Shawn Michaels finishing move is called Sweet Chin Music, this is where he super kicks his opponent in the mouth. Many wrestlers use a drop kick; this is an attack where a wrestler jumps up and kicks the opponent with the sole of both feet. [pic] P-1 Illustrated in photo P-1, is wrestler Edge performing a drop kick on Randy Orton. Edge has jumped off the top rope in this move to kick Randy Orton in the chest. This move can be painful if both wrestlers are not in the correct positions. Please do not try these moves at home.
They can be very dangerous if on does not know what they are doing, one can severely hurt someone or even kill him or her. This part of wrestling is very real. Wrestlers are injured by botching moves. This is not good for the wrestlers and not good for business. [pic] P-2 Another move is the Suplex. This is where one wrestler picks the opponent up off the ground (or Mat) and using a large portion of their own body weight to drive the opponent down on to the mat. As shown in P-2. [pic] P-3 In photo P-3 the Undertaker performing his Tombstone Pile driver on Mankind.
A pile drive is a controversial maneuver that was banned by promotions at various times in sports-entertainment history. The kneeling Tombstone was developed it out less stress on the user. [pic] Here is a sleeper hold. This move is as old as sports entertainment is itself. This is when a wrestler maneuvers behind his prey and wraps his right arm around his adversary’s neck, pressing his biceps against one side and the inner bone of his forearm against the other. Some injuries wresters have had are broken bones, torn muscles, and concussions.
Pro wrestlers like movie stuntmen perform there own stunts. An example would be in the Owen Hart vs. “Stone Cold” Steve Austin match in 1997. Austin suffered a broken neck after Hart messed up in an attempted pile driver, a move which one wrestler drives the other’s head into the ground (Lopez 2008). A stuntman does the hard moves that celebrities do not want to do or feel that they cannot do. A wrestler performs all there own bumps. Pro wrestlers perform night after night taking bumps, the way a stuntman takes bumps for celebrities.
Weather one likes pro wrestling or not one has to admit that it is entertaining. There are wrestlers one loves to cheer for and, there are wrestlers one loves to boo. In wrestling, there is never a boring moment. Weather its is the chairman blowing himself up for ratings, The Undertaker sitting straight up after being knocked down, or John Cena making his comeback after having neck surgery and wining the World Heavy Weight Championship belt. One never knows what to expect. Every storyline every plot has twists and turns that even an avid fan does not expect.
Just when one thinks, one knows who tried to kill Vince McMahon, the person one thought gets attacked, and one is back to thinking about who would do something like that. Is it a heel or a face that has done the deed? One is always trying to figure out where the storyline is going and who is involved in the plot. The storylines are always entertaining and sometimes even funny. Like when HHH and Ric Flair where talking about Batista, and did not realize he was listening. HHH paid for it in the ring, by getting Batista bombed through a table.
Professional wrestling grew from traveling strongmen in carnivals, who would challenge anyone to beat them. Now as it was then they had helpers to help them win. Weather it is a script they use or other wrestlers or even non-wrestlers to arrive at the end of the storyline; wrestling is today what it has been all throughout time. Entertainment! Wrestling is to be enjoyed by the masses. What once was just for show, now has become a multi-million dollar business in which one can cheer or jeer the wrestles why choose.
There is nothing like seeing a live event. The electricity of the arena is out of this world. One just has to experience for ones self. One may still think that pro wrestling is fake. For those people I would like to see those people take a steel chair to the head and see how fake that is. There are so many types of entertainment out there, for me it is professional wrestling. For many it may be football or baseball or even NASCAR, no matter what it is, it is still entertainment. Wrestling is it real or is it fake.
One will just have to make that decision there selves. Wrestling has been around for thousands of years and has evolved in many ways. So whoever your favorite wrestler is, or whoever they where, one has to admit, wrestling is a very entertaining sport. Just as the ancient Greek and Romans did, people worldwide enjoy watching professional wrestling. Like it or not wrestling is here to stay. References Cohen, E. (2008). History of the WWE: The Beginning. Webpage http://prowrestling. about. com/od/thepromotions/a/historywwe. tm Grabianowski, E. (2008). How Pro Wrestling Works. Webpage http://entertainment. howstguffworks. com/pro-wrestling. htm Lopez, E. (Sept 15, 2008). Professional wrestlers are more than just hyped stuntmen. It’s True, It’s True, Spartan Daily. Webpage http://media. www. thespartandaily. com/media/storage/paper852/news/2005/09/15/Opinioncolumnists/Professional. Wrestlers. Are. More. Than. Just. Hyped. Stuntmen-1497336. shtml WWE (May 2008). Encyclopedia of Ultimate Finishers. 65. WWE (2008). WWE. com. Webpage. http://www. WWE. com
In Favor of Regional Integration Integrating regions into a trading bloc can have some positive and influential aspects for the countries within that trading bloc. Free trade within these nations can helps secure stability within the economies, generate more product at a cheaper rate then without the integration, and assist with creating peace between the nations with peaceful conflict resolutions. The Association of the Southeast Asian Nations has created such a trading block between 10 nations over three decades ago which has been helping to build and sustain the economy of these nations in Southeast Asia.
The regional integration of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) includes Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Brunei Darussalam, Vietnam, Lao PDR, Myanmar, and Cambodia. Advantages that are seen by this regional integration is to help these nations accelerate in the cultural development, economic growth, and social progress by being able to trade goods or services freely between one another. Another advantage is the existence of peace it brings between the nations.
Since the development of the ASEAN trading bloc there have been no conflicts between the nations and they have pledged to peacefully resolve all settlements and disputes, this ensures that the regions live in a peaceful and harmonious environment. Further advantages include sharing common goals, objectives, and visions with one another. Free trade between the nations allows each to develop more goods or services that they can produce more efficiently allowing for reduced consumer costs between the nations of the trading bloc.
By being able to produce in a more efficient manor also has a result of a greater world production which would not be possible with trade restrictions due to tariffs and such. Economic growth can also be attributed to trading blocs. With nations being able to transfer knowledge from different sectors and the know-how also increases production in the nations which stimulates the economic growth within the trading bloc. When nations can combine with each other they can become stronger nations economically being able to produce more of the goods nd services while being able to export to other nations or trading blocs with a reduced cost while sharing all other goods and services within the trading bloc. Against Regional Integration Trade blocs are setup between different nations to allow for low or free trade between the nations whom are members within that trade bloc. Many different standards exist on how trade blocs are setup and no standard rules exist that need to be applied within the different trade blocs.
One trade bloc can have the same currency share the same standards when importing or exporting goods to nations not in the trade block while other trade blocs allow the nations to decide how they want to trade with other nations not within their bloc and only control trading within the nations that are members of that bloc. One thing that does not fare too well with regional economic integration is that each nation is run individually with own governments money system and everything is not seen eye to eye. Conflicts can occur between the nations that have free trade and not every government is going to run their economics the same way.
Some of the nations may apply high tariffs to other countries which import goods in while others may have low or no tariffs for the same countries. Another problem that could arise with trade blocs is that each trade bloc will have free trade within their supporting nations but in order to protect their markets from competition outside of their bloc they could impose high tariffs, if this were to happen the benefits resulting from having a trade bloc could more than offset by the decline from trading between the blocs.
Within the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) trade bloc each nation can set his or her own tariffs for trade with nations that are not in their trade bloc. Again, this could cause some discomfort between the other nations within the ASEAN trade bloc. One of the fundamental principals within this trade bloc is non-interference of the internal affairs of one another, even with this principal set into place tensions could arise if one nation decides to do something that another does not like.
References Hill, Charles W. L. (2007). International Business: Competing in the Global Marketplace (7th ed. ). New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin. Retrieved on 18 Dec 2008, from https://ecampus. phoenix. edu/content/eBookLibrary/content/eReader. html South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (n. d. ). South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation. Retrieved December 19, 2008, from http://www. saarc-sec. org/? t=1