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In Favor of Regional Integration Integrating regions into a trading bloc can have some positive and influential aspects for the countries within that trading bloc. Free trade within these nations can helps secure stability within the economies, generate more product at a cheaper rate then without the integration, and assist with creating peace between the nations with peaceful conflict resolutions. The Association of the Southeast Asian Nations has created such a trading block between 10 nations over three decades ago which has been helping to build and sustain the economy of these nations in Southeast Asia.
The regional integration of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) includes Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Brunei Darussalam, Vietnam, Lao PDR, Myanmar, and Cambodia. Advantages that are seen by this regional integration is to help these nations accelerate in the cultural development, economic growth, and social progress by being able to trade goods or services freely between one another. Another advantage is the existence of peace it brings between the nations.
Since the development of the ASEAN trading bloc there have been no conflicts between the nations and they have pledged to peacefully resolve all settlements and disputes, this ensures that the regions live in a peaceful and harmonious environment. Further advantages include sharing common goals, objectives, and visions with one another. Free trade between the nations allows each to develop more goods or services that they can produce more efficiently allowing for reduced consumer costs between the nations of the trading bloc.
By being able to produce in a more efficient manor also has a result of a greater world production which would not be possible with trade restrictions due to tariffs and such. Economic growth can also be attributed to trading blocs. With nations being able to transfer knowledge from different sectors and the know-how also increases production in the nations which stimulates the economic growth within the trading bloc. When nations can combine with each other they can become stronger nations economically being able to produce more of the goods nd services while being able to export to other nations or trading blocs with a reduced cost while sharing all other goods and services within the trading bloc. Against Regional Integration Trade blocs are setup between different nations to allow for low or free trade between the nations whom are members within that trade bloc. Many different standards exist on how trade blocs are setup and no standard rules exist that need to be applied within the different trade blocs.
One trade bloc can have the same currency share the same standards when importing or exporting goods to nations not in the trade block while other trade blocs allow the nations to decide how they want to trade with other nations not within their bloc and only control trading within the nations that are members of that bloc. One thing that does not fare too well with regional economic integration is that each nation is run individually with own governments money system and everything is not seen eye to eye. Conflicts can occur between the nations that have free trade and not every government is going to run their economics the same way.
Some of the nations may apply high tariffs to other countries which import goods in while others may have low or no tariffs for the same countries. Another problem that could arise with trade blocs is that each trade bloc will have free trade within their supporting nations but in order to protect their markets from competition outside of their bloc they could impose high tariffs, if this were to happen the benefits resulting from having a trade bloc could more than offset by the decline from trading between the blocs.
Within the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) trade bloc each nation can set his or her own tariffs for trade with nations that are not in their trade bloc. Again, this could cause some discomfort between the other nations within the ASEAN trade bloc. One of the fundamental principals within this trade bloc is non-interference of the internal affairs of one another, even with this principal set into place tensions could arise if one nation decides to do something that another does not like.
References Hill, Charles W. L. (2007). International Business: Competing in the Global Marketplace (7th ed. ). New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin. Retrieved on 18 Dec 2008, from https://ecampus. phoenix. edu/content/eBookLibrary/content/eReader. html South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (n. d. ). South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation. Retrieved December 19, 2008, from http://www. saarc-sec. org/? t=1
Behavioral vs. Humanistic Perspective I have chosen to discuss the behavioral perspective vs. the humanistic perspective. While the two are similar because they deal with behaviors, however its how behaviors are “learned” that makes them contrast to one another, creating in the long run a revolution in psychology. Behavioral perspective is defined as “perspective that focuses on observable behavior and emphasizes the learned nature of behaviors. Davis, & Palladino, 2010) Perhaps the best known experiment that exhibits this is “Pavlov’s dogs” (Or if you are a fan of The Office, the “Altoid experiment”) By observing reaction in the dogs and creating a controlled experiment was able to “teach” and the dogs “learned” the behavior of salivating when the dinner bell rang. (Davis, & Palladino, 2010) To bring this into a more “human” example, there is a stereotype that says that criminals are the product of their environments.
For example, if a parent is a drug dealer who does time in prison or jail then the children will follow in their footsteps and because they have “learned” that behavior, and will exhibit these behaviors in their own lives. (I would just like to say that this is not necessarily my opinion, it is just an example) This however leads me into my next subject, humanistic perspective. The humanistic perspective is an “approach to psychology associated with Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers emphasizes free will and individuals’ control of their own free will. (Davis, & Palladino, 2010) This in basic terms is an individual making cognitive choices in the behavior they will exhibit. The similarity in both of these is that there are still behaviors that are learned, however in this perspective; the individual will chose which behaviors to emulate and which to ignore. Going back to the stereotype about learned criminal behavior, the behavior in both perspectives is learned, however the subject will either chose to emulate, or chose to change the pattern and never exhibit any type of criminal behavior.
On the other side as well, some people who have never been exposed to criminal activity, may chose to exhibit criminal activity. So while these are similar, they created a revolution in psychology because of their differences in how the behavior is chosen. Be it learned and emulated or learned and patterns are changed by choice, they are opposite in thought and have contributed to psychology by giving us insight into the thought process. References Davis, S, & Palladino, J. (2010). Psychology sixth edition. Upper Saddle, NJ: Pearson Education Inc..
Akron Children’s Hospital deals with internal and external forces that impact organizational behavior on a daily basis. Examples of these forces are: 1. Restructuring-With technology changing from year to year, the hospital has to keep with the latest and greatest in medical procedures and equipment. The outside communities dictate this because the hospital truly belongs to the community. Internally, the staff expects to be educated and trained with new innovations when first available.
They would look elsewhere for employment if there was little advancement in medical technology. 2. Organizational mission-The first line of the mission statement at Akron Children’s offers medical care to infants, children, adolescents, and burn victims of all ages, regardless of ability to pay (Children’s Corporate Corner: Mission Statement). Akron Children’s asks for $50 dollar co-pay like many hospitals, except when the patient’s family cannot pay at that time. They have the opportunity to pay later.
Internally, the staff in the ER likes to see as many patients possible while they are on duty. They don’t want to see children turned away with medical care. 3. Fiscal Policies-Children’s promotes full compliance with all relevant billing and reimbursement laws, regulations and requirements (Corporate Compliance, Akron Children’s Hospital, Billing and Reimbursement). Insurance companies and patients families expect quick, accurate, and explanations on any billed services.
Inside staff desires expediency and accuracy because they can close the accounts effectively. 4. Competition-Because Akron Children’s is the only pediatric hospital in NE Ohio, there is little room for competition. However, the community demands the very best care for their loved ones. Much of the resources that the hospital acquires come from outside donations and the Children’s Miracle Network. Internally, medical staff has the education and experience to go to any hospital to work if they are not happy with the atmosphere where they work.
CLUSTER FINANCING Definition of Cluster in the Indian Context Clusters can be defined as Sectoral and geographical concentration of enterprises, in particular Small and Medium Enterprises (SME), faced with common opportunities and threats which can: a. Give rise to external economies (e. g. specialized suppliers of raw materials, components and machinery; sector specific skills etc. ); b. Favour the emergence of specialized technical, administrative and financial services; c.
Create a conducive ground for the development of inter-firm cooperation and specialization as well as of cooperation among public and private local institutions to promote local production, innovation and collective learning. Importance of Clusters in the Indian Context With a contribution of 40% to the country’s industrial output and 35% to direct exports, the Small and Medium Industry (SME) sector has achieved significant milestones for the industrial development of India. Within this sector, an important role is played by the numerous clusters that have been in existence for decades and sometimes even for centuries.
India has the richest diversity of clusters. The clusters are categorized as: ? Artisanal Clusters ??? Industrial Clusters The products covered by artisanal clusters include textile, handlooms, handicrafts, woodcrafts, metal and stone crafts, jewellery, leather, pottery & clay, etc. The industrial clusters include processed food, rice milling, readymade garments, terry towel, wet grinder, engineering, machine tools, handtools, foundry, brass parts, rubber and pharmaceuticals cluster.
There are more than 6500 industrial, artisan and micro enterprise clusters2. These clusters represent the socio economic heritage of India, where some towns or villages are known for a specific product for decades and centuries. It is estimated that these clusters contribute 60% of the manufactured exports from India. The clusters in India are estimated to have a significantly high share in employment generation. Cluster Development Initiatives in India Several institutions in India have taken up Cluster Projects besides various government initiatives.
They have been involved in promoting Small-Scale and Cottage Industries, and Regional Cluster Development by removing policy impediments; financial support; technology, skills and quality upgrading; market support and improving links between small and large firms. Some of the institutions working in this area are: Central Government ??? SICDP Cell, Development Commissioner (SSI), Ministry of Small Scale Industries ??? National Small Industrial Corporation Ltd (NSIC) ??? Development Commissioner (Handicrafts), Ministry of Textiles ??? Department of Science & Technology, Ministry of Science & Technology ???
Textiles Committee of India, Ministry of Textiles ??? Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC) ??? Coir Board National Support Institutions ??? Small Industries Development Bank of India (SIDBI) Technology Upgradation Programme ??? State Bank of India (SBI) UPTECH Programme ??? National Bank for Agriculture & Rural Development (NABARD) International Agencies ?? UNIDO ?? MSME ??? WASME SOME SME CLUSTERS COVERED BY EXISTING SIDBI BRANCHES Sr. No. Branch Offices No. of SSI clusters Product 1 Hyderabad 5 Ceiling Fan, Electronic Goods, Pharmaceuticals- Bulk Drugs, Hand Pump sets & Foundry 2 Patna 1 Brass and German Utensils Delhi 19 Stainless Steel Utensils & Cutlery, Chemicals, Electrical Engineering Equipment, Electronic Goods, Food Products, Leather Products, Mechanical Engineering Equipment, Packaging Material, Paper Products, Plastic Products, Wire Drawing, Metal Fabrication, Furniture, Electro Plating, Auto Components, Hosiery, Readymade Garments, Sanitary Fittings 4 Ahmedabad 17 Pharmaceuticals, Dyes & Intermediates, Moulded Plastic Products, Readymade Garments, Textile Machinery Parts, Diamond Processing, Machine Tools, Castings & Forging, Steel Utensils, Wood Product & Furniture, Paper Products, Leather Footwear, Washing Powder & Soap, Marble Slabs, Power Driven Pumps, Electronic Goods, Auto Parts 5 Surat 4 Diamond Processing, Powerloom, Wood Product & Furniture, Textile Machinery
Most of the clusters in India have similar characteristics and obstacles faced by them. To study the nature and issues of various clusters in India, we will go through the conditions of Jalandhar and nearby areas forming a cluster which is world-wide famous for high quality sports goods and other related goods. Sports goods industry of Jalandhar Jalandhar acquired importance during the Mughal period. Twelve Muslim bastis (clusters of houses) came into existence including Basti Danishmanda, Basti Guzan and Basti Nau, which are now dominant centres of the sports goods industry. Basti Nau has one of the biggest sports goods markets as well. Industrial production of sports goods began on a small scale during the late forties.
Over the years, the sports goods industry has grown at an impressive rate and of late Indian sports goods are also exported to different countries. Rough estimates suggest that today Jalandhar has more than one hundred major industries and about 20,000 small-scale industries with a most conservative estimate of an annual turnover of approximately Rs 450 crores. In Jalandhar, about 60 per cent of the sports goods that are manufactured comprise of different kinds of inflatable balls. Besides inflatable balls, the other sports goods that are largely manufactured are badminton racquets and shuttle cocks, cricket bats and balls, different kinds of gloves and protective equipment. In Jalandhar, three kinds of establishments are usually found: i.
Big establishments: These are generally geared to exports besides catering to the domestic market. ii. Small establishments: These usually manufacture sports goods for the domestic market. Both the big establishments as well as the small establishments are registered either under the Factories Act, 1948, or under the Shops and Establishment Act of the state of Punjab. iii. The unregistered units: These are found particularly in the urban pockets of Jalandhar. These units are mostly small home-based units which are usually run by the family members, but at times with the help of a couple of hired employees. These units do not have a direct access to market.
It has been seen that many a times when the big establishments – especially exporters – are not able to cope with large orders from their foreign clients, distribute a share of the production to these small unregistered, home- based units. Main issues and challenges faced by the Indian clusters are: ? Lack of skilled manpower ?Competition from other states/clusters/country ?Taxes and octroi levied by the government ?Fluctuating/increasing prices of raw materials ?Arranging finance of working capital ?Adequate power supply ?Lack of technology know how ?Inadequate knowledge sharing / upgradation ?Red tapism and bureaucracy ?Opposition by locals
D-SBI SME Cluster Series 2009 – Jalandhar draws insights from various SMEs operating in the three sectors, with the objective of providing an update on the present status and structure of the Jalandhar cluster in terms of key industries. It also highlights the strategies and attributes of the SMEs operating in these industries, discusses the existing and future technology scenario with regards to the Jalandhar Cluster and comments on the future growth prospects of the cluster. Jalandhar SME Cluster: An inter-industry comparison Parameters Sports GoodsRubber GoodsLeather Revenue classification of surveyed companies 26% of companies with revenue between Rs 10 mn to Rs 50 mn44% of the companies with revenue between Rs 10 n to Rs 50 mn40% of the companies with revenue between Rs 10 mn to 100 mn Types of machines used• 57% Semi Automatic • 31% Manual • 12% Automatic• 74% Semi Automatic • 7% Manual • 4% Automatic• 55% Semi Automatic • 15% Manual • 5% Automatic Average Capacity Utilisation 60% (Among the surveyed companies)63% (Among the surveyed companies)80% (Among the surveyed companies) Top 2 drivers for technology upgradation• Increasing productivity • Vendor’s demand• Increasing productivity • Bringing in efficiency & streamlining production • Vendor’s demand • Bringing in efficiency & streamlining production Top 2 hindrances in technology upgradation• Power Cut • Costly Technology• Power cut • Costly technology• Power cut • Government policies and regulation Major obstacles faced in applying for loansCollateral requirement • Collateral requirement • Paper workAccess to long term loans Main driver for availing loans in futureMeeting working capital requirementsMeeting working capital requirementsMeeting working capital requirements Top 2 issues and challenges faced in the cluster• Inadequate power supply • Taxes & octroi• Inadequate power supply • Taxes & octroi• Inadequate power supply • Lack of government incentives Growth prospects over the next five yearsBetween 11% to 20% or above 20% over the next 2 yearsBetween 11% to 20% or above 20% over the next 2 years Between 11% to 20% or above 20% over the next 2 years Finance Arrangement and Uses by Clusters D has conducted a survey to understand the mode of finance and the fund requirement of different clusters operating in India. The survey also tried to find the difficulties that companies faced while availing loans. According to the survey results, around 41% SMEs found loan availability to be moderately difficult and 32% felt that loan availability was easy.
Further, banks were found to be the primary source for the SMEs’ credit requirements in the survey. In fact, when these some clusters faced a credit crunch in recent times, banks supported them and helped them restructure their then-existent term-loans. The nationalized banks are the most preferred choice in terms of sources of funds; 89% of the surveyed companies chose to go to these banks for their finance needs. Moreover, 83% companies were satisfied with the services provided by their existing banks. Source: Survey results Note: The percentage of credit requirements are calculated on cumulative basis In the last three years, 45% of the SMEs availed loans but in the next three years, 53% SMEs plan to take loans, revealed the survey.
In the last three years, these SMEs availed loans mostly for their working capital requirements (27%) as apart from meeting their working capital requirements, they also had to ensure sufficient cash flow for their short-term debt and operational expenses. In the next three years, majority of the survey companies plan to seek loans for meeting their working capital requirements and for business expansion. Interest rates and time taken for loan approval continues to be major hindrances for companies operating in the cluster. Source: Survey results Note: 1 denotes “not an obstacle at all” and 2. 5 denotes “major obstacle” Conclusion The experience of Indian clusters shows that knowledge and information sharing are mostly informal (and that too within narrow caste groups).
Formal component which caters to strong linkages of academics with industries is missing, which on the contrary is a strong feature of German and Italian models of innovation. As a result, in the Indian case, information acquisition regarding the latest developments in a particular field is wanting. Work sharing is not seen in the clusters, as it is a fight for the same customer and in the same market. And as most of the clusters are created for production related issues such as, procurement of raw material, maintenance and corrective actions, the marketing related issues are seldom dealt with. The marketing related issues are the real differentiators between a multinational company and the SMEs entrepreneurs.
With the creation of clusters, the SME entrepreneur can compete with the multinational companies on the issues of quality and other production aspects. But when it comes to capturing the market, the multinational companies (MNCs) are far ahead of the small-scale entrepreneurs. With the marketing muscle the multinational companies take away the market share from the small-scale entrepreneurs. Thus, these clusters do not really serve the wider purpose as they do in Italy and Germany, i. e. Indian clusters are not united to meet common marketing challenges (except in Gems and Jewelry). This is one of the reasons of success in the case of Italian model where every thing from raw material to marketing is taken care of by the consortia.
The creation and use of specific data bases from production to marketing lacks in the Indian situation. Units are connected/dependent on each other through several areas of activities such as: a) manufacturing/production requirements for example supply chain (component makers and assemblers), common testing facilities etc. b) collective buying and selling e. g. raw material procurement, common marketing etc. c) knowledge generation, sourcing (from outside the cluster), and sharing take place within the cluster. It is observed that the ‘industrial cluster’ has in addition to enterprise units, units that perform the role of establishing linkages including those related to knowledge.
For example in Germany, Aachen Technical University is a unit within the cluster for knowledge generation and sharing; and in Gujarat, the Rajkot Engineering Association in case of Diesel Engine Cluster or the CGCRI unit in case of Ceramic Industrial Cluster also perform this function of knowledge sourcing and sharing. In the Italian case, the Consortia and the Science and Technology Parks perform this role. It is concluded out that for a cluster to be successful, out of all the activities as mentioned above, knowledge sharing through linkages and networking is central to technological change and innovation and to be competitive in the market.
However, networking for formal and constant sharing of new knowledge and skills is very poor and cannot bring in required innovations, hence cannot survive competition for a long time. Exploitation of all knowledge resources including international, national and local (to capture the tacit dimension), through networking with the help of information technologies has been recognized as the prime factor for integrating local knowledge with globally available for attaining competitive edge. In India, although academia industry linkages have begun to emerge in various clusters, but India needs further large scale commitment and action on the lines of Consortia and conglomeration of SMEs in the form of clusters as in Italy and strong linkages between the academia and the enterprises in Germany.
The UNIDO studies reveal that policy intervention for SMEs can be particularly effective when it is based on the “Triple C” which stands for Customer oriented (forces the firms to tackle their key problems of competitiveness), Collective (as this decreases the transaction costs and helps generate relationships for mutual learning) and Cumulative (as this increases the capacity to upgrade and become less dependent on support from outside). This can be extended to an additional C, that of Context-based. It is very essential for policies to be designed in milieu of the business and cultural context prevailing in a cluster. This study found instances that in the process of aiming ambitious goals for the cluster development, projects often failed to take into cognizance the operating environment.
Facts On Caffeine And Soft Drinks Caffeine is found in coffee beans, tea leaves, cocoa beans, and other plants. Caffeine is a safe ingredient that consumers have enjoyed as part of many of our products for more than 100 years. The beverage industry offers both caffeine-free and caffeinated soft drinks. One of the most studied ingredients Caffeine is one of the most comprehensively studied ingredients in the food supply, with centuries of safe consumption in foods and beverages. In 1958, the U. S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) designated caffeine in cola drinks as “Generally Recognized As Safe” (GRAS).
The FDA considers caffeine safe for all consumers including children. After an extensive review in 1987, the FDA “found no evidence to show that the use of caffeine in carbonated beverages would render these products injurious to health. ” Over 140 countries have specifically considered the safety of caffeine and allow its use in beverages at various levels. Moderate caffeine consumption for adults — the amount contained in three to four 8 oz. cups of coffee or 5-6 cans of caffeinated soft drinks — has not been associated with adverse health effects. Of course, moderate caffeine consumption would be lower for children.
Pregnant or nursing women, or women trying to become pregnant, should consult a doctor regarding caffeine consumption. Caffeine in the diet The most commonly known sources of caffeine are coffee, cocoa beans, kola nuts, and tea leaves. For children and young adults, the primary sources of caffeine are tea and soft drinks; caffeine intake for adults 25 and over is mostly from coffee. Caffeine in soft drinks Caffeine is an integral part of the complex flavor and overall profile of some soft drinks, which consumers enjoy for refreshment, taste and hydration.
For over 100 years in some cases, the formulas for these drinks have carefully balanced a mix of ingredients, including sweeteners, carbonation, caffeine, and other flavorings to produce the refreshing taste and exhilarating quality that consumers prefer, especially when served cold or with ice. The bitter taste of caffeine is part of the complex flavor profile of these drinks. The amount of caffeine in most caffeine-containing soft drinks is relatively small — about 30 milligrams of caffeine per 8-ounce serving, or less than one-third the amount present in an 8-ounce cup of drip-style coffee (104-192 mg per 8oz).
However, because some people prefer beverages without caffeine, many soft drinks are also available in caffeine-free versions. Is caffeine addictive? Addiction is a loosely used and, at times, loaded word that means different things to different people and is often defined differently by members of the general public. People who say they are “addicted” to caffeine tend to use the term loosely, like saying they are “addicted” to chocolate, running, shopping, working, or television. However, caffeine is not addictive as most experts in the scientific community define the term.
According to the World Health Organization, “There is no evidence whatsoever that caffeine use has even remotely comparable physical and social consequences which are associated with serious drugs of abuse. ” In the most recent version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, the authoritative text of the American Psychiatric Association, caffeine is not classified as causing “substance dependence. ” Unlike drugs of abuse, people who choose to consume foods and beverages that contain caffeine can control or moderate their caffeine intake.
Most people who consume caffeine maintain a relatively consistent level of intake. Caffeine is considered a mild stimulant. Scientific studies confirm that although many people enjoy caffeinated products, those who choose to stop consuming or reduce caffeine in their diets can do so without serious medical intervention or serious psychological or physical effects. The side effects that some people experience, such as headaches, tend to be mild and pass within a few days. Is caffeine dehydrating? Some individuals may question whether caffeine is dehydrating.
Recent scientific consensus concludes caffeinated beverages contribute to the body’s hydration needs similarly to non-caffeinated beverages. The U. S. National Academy of Sciences in its February 2004 report on Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride and Sulfate state,”… caffeinated beverages appear to contribute to the daily total water intake similar to that contributed by non-caffeinated beverages. ” ————————————————- http://www. beverageinstitute. org/beverages_and_health/FactsOnCaffeineAndSoftDrinks. html Top 10 Reasons to Quit Coffee and Caffeine Consumption 1. Caffeine Sensitivity: There a significant number of people who are sensitive to caffeine and show number of reactions to caffeine such as jitters and sleeplessness. 2. No Weight loss diet: Many people drink coffee instead of having their proper meals hoping to loss weight faster. But it is just the opposite, the truth is many diet programs advise to eliminate caffeine from the diet in order to get better results. There are many documented reasons which show that caffeine interferes with weight loss programs. 3.
Nursing Mothers: Women who drink caffeine on regular basis or have high consumption of caffeine are often told by their doctors to quit caffeine for well being of their baby. 4. Health Reasons: Many people experience headaches and increased level of stress resulted from caffeine consumption. 5. Aging: Caffeine is a known culprit in speeding the aging process. There are many which show the caffeine consumption could speed up the aging process. 6. Stress: Caffeine stimulates hormones like cortisol which not only have drastic impact on our nervous system but also have long term consequences and one of them is aging. . Fatigue: Intake of caffeine gives you an instant jolt of brain alertness but this is a short lived feeling which is soon followed by fatigue and energy loss. 8. Bone loss: Consumption of caffeine accelerates calcium loss and eventually cause bone loss. 9. Heart disease and high blood pressure: Coffee consumption and caffeine intake can make many of us vulnerable to heart diseases and raise blood pressure. 10. Short-term memory loss: Many believe that consumption of coffee and caffeine can result in short-term memory loss or recalling or retaining information. http://www. chaimedia. com/list/500. tml ————————————————- http://psychology. okstate. edu/faculty/leffingwell/bcl/resources/presentations/thompsen_honors. pdf PEDIATRICS Vol. 111 No. 1 January 2003, pp. 42-46 Caffeine Consumption and Weekly Sleep Patterns in US Seventh-, Eighth-, and Ninth-Graders Charles P. Pollak, MD* and David Bright * From the Division of Sleep Medicine, Department of Neurology, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio Objective. To survey caffeine use by seventh-, eighth-, and ninth-graders and relate its use to age, sex, sleep characteristics, and day of week Methods.
Students kept a daily, 2-week diary of their sleep times and use of caffeine containing drinks and foods. Data were analyzed by fitted multiple regression models Results. A total of 191 students participated. Caffeine intake ranged between 0 and 800 mg/d. Mean use over 2 weeks ranged up to 379. 4 mg/d and averaged 62. 7 mg/d (corrected for underrepresentation in our sample of boys, who consumed more caffeine). Higher caffeine intake in general was associated with shorter nocturnal sleep duration, increased wake time after sleep onset, and increased daytime sleep Sleep Patterns.
Mean bedtime was 10:57 PM, and mean wake time was at 7:14 AM. Older children delayed bedtime longer on weekends, and younger ones had longer nightly sleep durations. Sleep duration lengthened on weekends, reflecting the combined effects of the circadian timing system and a mechanism that regulates the duration of sleep. Caffeine (soda) consumption also increased on weekends, for reasons that may be primarily social Conclusions. Regardless of whether caffeine use disturbed sleep or was consumed to counteract the daytime effect of interrupted sleep, caffeinated beverages had detectable pharmacologic effects.
Limitation of the availability of caffeine to teenagers should therefore be considered. Key Words: caffeine • sleep • soda • coffee • teenagers • adolescents Abbreviations: WASO, wake time after sleep onset Received for publication Jan 28, 2002; Accepted Jun 13, 2002. ————————————————- http://pediatrics. aappublications. org/cgi/content/abstract/111/1/42? etoc Caffeine Consumption, Sleep, and Affect in the Natural Environments of Depressed Youth and Healthy Controls* Diana J. Whalen, BS1,2, Jennifer S.
Silk, PhD1,2, Mara Semel, MS2, Erika E. Forbes, PhD1,2, Neal D. Ryan, MD2, David A. Axelson, MD2, Boris Birmaher, MD2 and Ronald E. Dahl, MD1,2 1Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh and 2Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine All correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Jennifer S. Silk, Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, 3811 O’Hara St, Pittsburgh, PA, 15260. E-mail: [email protected] edu | Abstract | Top Abstract Method Results Discussion Acknowledgments References |
Objective Sleep problems are a cardinal symptom of depression in children and adolescents and caffeine use is a prevalent and problematic issue in youth; yet little is known about caffeine use and its effects on sleep in youth with depression. We examined caffeine use and its relation to sleep and affect in youth’s natural environments. Methods Thirty youth with major depressive disorder (MDD) and 23 control youth reported on caffeine use, sleep, and affect in their natural environment using ecological momentary assessment at baseline and over 8 weeks, while MDD youth received treatment.
Results Youth with MDD reported more caffeine use and sleep problems relative to healthy youth. Youth with MDD reported more anxiety on days they consumed caffeine. Caffeine use among youth with MDD decreased across treatment, but sleep complaints remained elevated. Conclusions Findings suggest that both sleep quality and caffeine use are altered in pediatric depression; that caffeine use, but not sleep problems, improves with treatment; and that caffeine may exacerbate daily anxiety among youth with depression.
Key words: caffeine; depression; ecological momentary assessment; sleep. Caffeine is the most widely consumed stimulant in the US and perhaps the world (Barone ; Roberts, 1996). In adults, caffeine can affect arousal (Barry et al. , 2005; Lyvers, Brooks, ; Matica, 2004), attention (Lorist ; Tops, 2003; Yeomans, Ripley, Davies, Rusted, ; Rogers, 2002), reaction time (Childs ; deWit, 2006; Kenemans ; Lorist, 1995), and sleep (for a review, see Boutrel ; Koob, 2004; Drapeau et al. , 2006).
Those same effects on youth, however, have received little empirical study (for a review, see Hughes ; Hale, 1998). Work in this area is a crucial undertaking, given that many youth use caffeine daily and caffeine use is associated with poor sleep and daytime fatigue (National Sleep Foundation, 2006; Rapoport, Berg, Ismond, Zahn, ; Neims, 1984; Rapoport, Elkins, Neims, Zahn, ; Berg, 1981). Understanding caffeine’s effects on sleep is particularly important in clinical disorders, such as depression, in which sleep difficulties are important features.
The aim of the current study was to examine relationships between caffeine use and sleep in healthy and depressed youth using a natural approach to gather real-time information on how youth sleep and utilize caffeine in their daily lives. Epidemiological work suggests that caffeine use in youth is worthy of empirical attention. 75–98% of youth consume at least one caffeinated beverage daily (Morgan, Stults, & Zabnick, 1982; National Sleep Foundation, 2006), with 31% reporting more than two per day (National Sleep Foundation, 2006).
These rates approach the levels consumed by adults (Hughes & Oliveto, 1997). The subjective effects of high caffeine doses on youth are similar to those found in adults, such as nervousness and nausea (for a review, see Hughes & Hale, 1998). Behaviorally, caffeine use in youth has also been shown to improve performance on attention-related tasks. Children show improved performance and decreased self-reported “sluggishness” following moderate levels of caffeine consumption (Bernstein et al. , 1994).
On the other hand, when children who are regular caffeine users are asked to abstain, they report higher levels of negative affect (Goldstein & Wallace, 1997) and show decreased reaction times (Bernstein et al. , 1998), suggesting those complex cycles of caffeine dependence can be set into motion even in childhood and adolescence. Although less widely researched, caffeine may also play a cyclical role in affect regulation. Caffeine can contribute to arousal, anxiety, and irritability, thus exacerbating negative affect states (Brice & Smith, 2002; Childs & deWit, 2006; Smith, Sutherland, & Christopher, 2005).
On the other hand, individuals may attempt to use caffeine as an affect regulator, much as they use other stimulants, such as cigarettes. Caffeine is a widely available, heavily marketed, and socially acceptable stimulant, even in child and adolescent populations. Caffeine may be particularly appealing to depressed youth seeking a “lift” due to fatigue or negative affect. In support of this speculation, self-reported anxious and depressive symptoms have been found to be elevated in adolescents with caffeine dependence (Bernstein et al. 1994; Bernstein, Carroll, Thuras, Cosgrove, & Roth, 2002). To address this question in our sample, we examined whether youth with depression used more caffeine than healthy controls and whether their caffeine use was associated with daily fluctuations in affect. Caffeine use may have an important association with sleep quality. There is also evidence that, like adults (National Sleep Foundation, 2001), youth use caffeine to counteract daytime sleepiness. Caffeine use in youth tends to increase after Wednesday, peak on Saturday, and then decline (Pollack & Bright, 2003).
In fact, adolescents who drank two or more caffeinated beverages a day were more likely to report an insufficient amount of sleep on school nights, a self-described sleep disturbance, and problems related to drowsiness, than those who drank one or less (National Sleep Foundation, 2006). In addition, children who were heavy caffeine users reported an increase in sleep disruption following a day of caffeine consumption (Pollack & Bright, 2003). This finding demonstrates the potential for caffeine consumption to contribute to cycles of sleep disruption in youth. The second focus of our study was on youth’s sleep ehaviors in the natural context. Youth with major depressive disorder (MDD) frequently complain of sleep disturbances, regardless of caffeine use (Bertocci et al. , 2005; Ryan et al. , 1987). A large body of literature implicates sleep dysregulation in adult depression, with several studies suggesting that sleep difficulties precede the onset of depressive disorders (for a review, see Riemann ; Voderholzer, 2003). Sleep complaints are extremely common in children and adolescents with MDD, with as many as 90% reporting significant sleep problems (Ryan et al. , 1987).
Reported sleep problems have included hypersomnia, nighttime awakenings, daytime sleepiness, and circadian reversal (Dahl et al. , 1996). In a previous study, our group found that children and adolescents with depression, compared to controls, reported significantly worse subjective sleep in terms of sleep quality, number of awakenings, minutes awake, and ease of waking (Bertocci et al. , 2005). The current study extends this work by examining group differences in subjective sleep behaviors in the natural environments of healthy and depressed youth over several months, as well as how these sleep behaviors are related to caffeine consumption.
A final, more exploratory goal was to examine whether subjective sleep and caffeine use change across the course of treatment for youth with depression. Although caffeine consumption is not specifically targeted in treatments for depression, it may change as participants stabilize and normalize their affect states and daily activities as a function of treatment via medication or psychosocial therapy. Alternatively, more specific treatments (or adjunctive treatment) addressing these behaviors may need to be developed.
To the extent that sleep and caffeine behaviors are altered in pediatric depression, it will be important to understand whether standard treatments for these disorders impact these behaviors. This study represents a preliminary step toward addressing this question. To address these questions, we utilized Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) to objectively measure affect, behavior, and caffeine use in the home environment. EMA is an ecologically valid method of gathering representative real-time data on affect and behavior in natural environments through the use of signaling devices (Axelson et al. 2003; Larson, Csikszentmihalyi, ; Graef, 1980; Shiffman et al. , 2006; Silk, Steinberg, ; Morris, 2003). EMA can provide more accurate and objective data on day-to-day shifts in caffeine consumption and sleep, but has not been applied to examining these behaviors in youth with depression. In fact, most studies have relied on retrospective reports of caffeine intake and sleep habits—methods limited by memory biases. In summary, this study builds on previous research to address four questions: (a) Do youth with depression use more caffeine in their daily lives than healthy youth? (b) Do youth with depression report poorer sleep in their daily lives than healthy youth? ; (c) How is daily caffeine use related to sleep and affect? ; and (d) Do sleep and caffeine use change as youth with MDD go through treatment? We hypothesized that youth with MDD would report greater caffeine use and subjective sleep problems than healthy youth, that caffeine use would be associated with greater sleep problems that night and greater negative affect that day, especially for youth with MDD, and that both sleep and caffeine use would improve throughout treatment. Method | Top Abstract Method Results Discussion Acknowledgments References | Participants This report includes data from 53 youth participating in a longitudinal clinical assessment study of neurobehavioral factors in pediatric affective disorder (Birmaher et al. , 2000). Participants (34 females) ranged in age from 7–17 years (M = 12. 44, SD = 2. 88). Participants were divided into two groups based on current psychiatric diagnoses: MDD n = 30; and healthy controls n = 23.
Sixty-three percent of participants with depression had a current comorbid anxiety disorder (Separation Anxiety Disorder, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, or Social Phobia) and 43% had a current comorbid behavioral disorder (Conduct Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, or Attention-deficit Hyperactivity Disorder). The retention rate was 70% and there were no demographic or clinical differences between subjects retained and not retained in the study (Birmaher et al. , 2004). Inclusion Criteria
Youth with MDD met diagnostic criteria according to DSM-III-R (American Psychiatric Association, 1987) or DSM-IV (American Psychiatric Association, 1994) classification. All participants diagnosed with a psychiatric disorder received an 8-week treatment course consisting of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRI’s; n = 9) and/or Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT; n = 8), or both (n = 13). The SSRI’s included citalopram 10–40 mg (n = 8), escitalopram 5 mg (n = 1), and fluoxetine 5–25 mg (n = 10). Medication data were missing for three subjects. Healthy control youth were required to be free of any lifetime psychopathology.
In addition, they were required to have no first-degree relatives with a lifetime episode of any mood or psychotic disorder; no second-degree relatives with a lifetime history of childhood-onset, recurrent, psychotic, or bipolar depression or schizoaffective or schizophrenic disorder; and no ;20% of second-degree relatives could have a lifetime episode of MDD. Exclusion Criteria Since the youth in this study were originally recruited to participate in a broad set of biological protocols including hormonal challenge probes and sleep electroencephalogram (Birmaher et al. 2000, 2004), the following exclusionary criteria applied at the time of the initial interview: (a) the use of any medication with central nervous system effects within the past 2 weeks or any lifetime use of fluoxetine (no subjects were taking serotonin reuptake inhibitors, stimulants, or other antidepressant medications); (b) significant medical illness; (c) extreme obesity (weight ;150% of ideal body weight) or growth failure (height or weight below the third percentile); (d) IQ of 70 or less; (e) inordinate fear of intravenous needles (because of the need to draw blood for biological assays); and (f) specific learning disabilities.
Subjects with depression were also excluded if they had schizophrenic, schizoaffective, and bipolar disorders. Procedures The study was approved by the university’s Institutional Review Board. Participants were recruited from three sources: (a) community advertisements (primarily radio and newspaper ads), (b) inpatient and outpatient clinics at a major medical center in which the youth or their parents were being treated, and (c) referrals from other research studies or other participants in the present study.
Youth and their parents were required to sign assents and informed consents, respectively. Structured diagnostic interviews were administered to establish lifetime and present youth psychiatric diagnoses and familial history of affective disorder. Qualifying participants were invited to participate in a multifaceted protocol that included: (a) for participants with MDD, an 8-week open treatment protocol using CBT and/or SSRI’s; (b) for all participants, a visit to the neurobehavioral laboratory during the baseline weekend of the study (Forbes et al. , 2006; Ladouceur, et al. 2005); and (c) also for all participants, a home assessment protocol that included EMA and measures of sleep in the natural environment collected in biweekly intervals over the 8-week course of the study. The focus of this report is on data collected through the home assessment protocol. Instruments Structured Diagnostic Interviews Each youth and his or her parent(s) were interviewed to determine the youth’s psychiatric history using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia in School-Age Children—Present and Lifetime version (K-SADS-PL, Kaufmann, Birmaher, Brent, & Rao, 1997).
Parents and youth were interviewed separately, with clinical interviewers integrating data from both informants to arrive at a final diagnosis. To determine familial loading for mood disorders, parents were interviewed using the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV (Spitzer, Williams, Gibbon, & First, 1990). Other adult first-degree and second-degree relatives were assessed indirectly using a modified version of the Family History Interview (Weissman et al. , 1986), with the youth’s parent(s) and other available relatives serving as informant(s). All interviews were carried out by trained BA- and MA-level research clinicians.
Inter-rater reliabilities for diagnoses assessed during the course of this study were estimated to be k 0. 70. The results of the interview were presented at a consensus case conference with a child psychiatrist, who reviewed the findings and preliminary diagnosis and provided a final diagnosis based on DSM-III-R or DSM-IV criteria. Subjective Sleep Ratings All youth completed one subjective sleep report each day collected in biweekly intervals for five extended weekends (Friday through Monday) beginning at baseline and across the 8-week treatment period (n = 20 per participant).
The subjective sleep reports included the participant’s estimates of (a) sleep quality (the level of restfulness the youth felt upon awakening), (b) ease of waking (the level of difficulty the youth had waking up), (c) the number of minutes to fall asleep, (d) the number of nighttime awakenings, (e) the number of minutes awake during the night, (f) bedtime, (g) total sleep time, and (h) morning wake time (Bertocci et al. , 2005). For some analyses, weekend totals were created by averaging responses that occurred during each day of the assessment weekends.
Ecological Momentary Assessment As part of a larger study, all participants completed an EMA protocol designed to provide real-time data on behavior, emotion, and social context in the child’s natural environment. Participants were given answer-only cellular phones on which they received calls from a trained staff member for five extended weekends beginning at baseline and across an the 8-week treatment period (Axelson et al. , 2003). Participants were called 12 times between 4 p. m. Friday and 10 p. m. Monday each weekend, for a total of 60 calls in 8 weeks.
Participants received two calls on Friday and Monday and four calls on Saturday and Sunday. Each call consisted of a brief structured interview to evaluate current behavior, affect, and social context. The present report focuses on affect ratings and caffeine consumption from the calls obtained during each extended weekend. At each call, participants were asked to rate their current affect on a subset of 5-point scales from the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule for Children (PANAS-C; Laurent et al. , 1999). Ratings were obtained for four negative emotions (“sad,” “angry,” “nervous,” and “upset”).
During the last call of each day, participants were asked, “Have you had any caffeine today? ” followed by “How many servings of caffeine did you have? ” For some analyses, weekend totals were created by averaging responses that occurred during each day of the assessment weekends. Plan of Analyses Data were analyzed using repeated measures linear mixed effects models to account for the nesting of assessments within subjects and across time. Because data on sleep and caffeine use were collected at one call per day, data were analyzed at the level of day rather than call.
Data on affect were averaged across the 2–4 sampling points per day to create corresponding measures of daily affect. All mixed effects models included subject as a random effect and day as a repeated measure. Fixed effects were included for week (0, 2, 4, 6, or 8), diagnostic group, caffeine use, and/or subjective sleep, depending upon the specific hypothesis tested, as described subsequently. Preliminary analyses indicated that there were no significant differences in age (t = –1. 74; NS) or gender (; NS) across diagnostic groups, therefore these variables were not included as covariates in the mixed models.
Effect sizes for primary analyses were calculated using Effect Size Generator-Pro (Devilly, 2005). | Results | Top Abstract Method Results Discussion Acknowledgments References | Caffeine Consumption Independent samples t-tests revealed no gender differences in caffeine consumption (t = 0. 66; NS; 95% confidence interval [CI] = –2. 52–4. 98); age was correlated with caffeine consumption (r = 0. 34, p ; . 01). Thus, age was included as a covariate in subsequent analyses. A mixed effects model was computed examining the relationship between the numbers of affeinated beverages consumed per day, diagnostic group, and week in the study. We also examined the interaction between diagnosis and week to test for treatment related changes in caffeine use, as only the group with MDD would be expected to show changes over time since the control group was not enrolled in any form of treatment throughout the study. This analysis revealed a main effect for group (F(1,504) = 14. 12; p ; . 001; 95% CI = –. 45 to . 01; d = 1. 06) indicating that youth with depression consumed greater amounts of caffeine per day across the study than healthy controls (Table I).
To determine whether this main effect was driven by comorbid anxiety disorders in the sample, we computed a mixed effects model that added anxiety as a covariate. This analysis revealed a main effect for anxiety (F(1,208) = 15. 27; p ; . 001; 95% CI = . 01 to . 02; d = 1. 1) indicating that youth with depression and comorbid anxiety disorders consumed greater amounts of caffeine per day across the study than those without comorbid anxiety disorders. View this table: [in this window] [in a new window] | Table I. Mean Reports of Sleep and Caffeine Use in the Natural Environment by Diagnostic Group at Baseline and Week 8| There was also an interaction between group and week (F(4, 236) = 2. 56; p ; . 05; 95% CI = Week 0 –. 52 to . 28, Week 1 –. 20 to . 46, Week 3 –. 60 to . 08, Week 5 –. 08 to . 52) in predicting caffeine use. To interpret this interaction, we conducted mixed effects models predicting caffeine use from week separately for each diagnostic group. This analysis indicated that week in the study was a predictor of caffeine use for youth with MDD (F(1, 157) = 11. 85; p ; . 001; 95% CI = Week 0 –. 09 to . 56, Week 1 –. 23 to . 29, Week 3. 04 to . 59, Week 5 –. 35 to . 10; d = . 55) but not for controls (F(1, 43) = 2. 2; NS; 95% CI = Week 0. 02 to . 30, Week 1. 06 to . 36, Week 3 –. 05 to . 19, Week 5 –. 02 to . 26; d = . 44). To examine the direction of this effect, we plotted mean caffeine use across each weekend in the study separately for each diagnostic group. As shown in Fig. 1, caffeine use decreased across the 8-week treatment protocol for youth with MDD, but not controls. There were no significant differences in posttreatment caffeine consumption among youth with MDD receiving CBT, SSRI, or CBT + SSRI treatment (F [2, 27] = 0. 27; NS; 95% CI = 0. 22 to 3. 04). View larger version (13K): [in this window] in a new window] [Download PowerPoint slide] | Figure 1 Changes in caffeine use across treatment. | | Subjective Sleep Reports A series of mixed effects models were computed predicting subjective ratings of sleep quality from diagnostic group, week in the study, and the interaction between diagnosis and week in the study. These analyses revealed main effects for group indicating that youth with MDD reported taking longer to fall asleep (F(1, 548) = 56. 42; p ; . 001; 95% CI = –17. 22 to –4. 94; d = . 64), more nighttime awakenings (F(1, 569) = 64. 13; p ; . 001; 95% CI = –. 75 to –. 20; d = . 5, more difficulty waking up (F(1, 765) = 29. 97; p ; . 001; 95% CI = 1. 22 to 19. 71; d = . 51) and a lower rating of overall subjective sleep quality (F(1, 682) = 51. 12; p ; . 001; 95% CI = . 69 to 17. 88; d = . 67) than healthy controls. These analyses also revealed a general trend for subjective ratings of sleep to improve across the course of this study, with main effects of week for time to fall asleep (F(4, 326) = 3. 49; p ; . 01; 95% CI = Week 0 –0. 43 to 16. 66, Week 1 6. 24 to 22. 48, Week 3 –6. 12 to 4. 98, Week 5 –8. 19 to 2. 89; d = . 53), nighttime awakenings (F(4, 255) = 4. 92; p ; . 01; 95% CI = Week 0. 37 to . 99, Week 1. 13 to . 72, Week 3 –. 22 to . 34, Week 5 –. 36 to . 31; d = . 63), and overall subjective sleep quality (F(4, 263) = 3. 71; p ; . 01; 95% CI = Week 0 –11. 96 to 3. 69, Week 1 –15. 53 to –. 15, Week 3 –3. 54 to 10. 82, Week 5 –6. 33 to 8. 99; d = . 54) (Table I). To determine whether these main effects were driven by comorbid anxiety disorders in the sample, we computed mixed effects models that added anxiety as a covariate. These analyses revealed a main effect for anxiety indicating that depressed youth with comorbid anxiety disorders reported more nighttime awakenings (F(1,307) = 6. 4; p ; . 05; 95% CI = . 00 to . 02; d = . 73), more difficulty waking up (F(1, 385) = 8. 23; p ; . 01; 95% CI = . 08 to . 45; d = . 81), and a lower rating of overall subjective sleep quality (F(1, 373) = 10. 95; p ; . 001; 95% CI = . 11 to . 42; d = . 93) across the study than those without comorbid anxiety disorders. However, there were no weeks by diagnosis interactions predicting any of the sleep variables, suggesting that sleep did not improve as a function of treatment for depression.
Furthermore, t-tests conducted on sleep variables aggregated across the posttreatment weekend indicated that at the end of treatment, youth with MDD reported greater minutes to sleep (t = –2. 29; p ; . 05; 95% CI = –21. 51 to –1. 23; d = . 65) and lower sleep ratings (t = 2. 34; p ; . 05; 95% CI = 1. 89 to 25. 51; d = . 66) than healthy youth. There were no significant differences among youth with MDD receiving CBT, SSRI, or CBT + SSRI treatment in posttreatment subjective sleep rating (F[2, 22] = 0. 32; NS; 95% CI = 58. 44 to 76. 04), minutes to sleep (F[2, 19] = 3. 55; p = . 05; 95% CI = 11. 6 to 30. 66), times awake (F[2, 17] = 0. 57; NS; 95% CI = 1. 87 to 6. 33), and difficulty waking (F[2, 20] = 0. 62; NS; 95% CI = 51. 37 to 71. 50). Relationships Between Caffeine Use and Sleep Next, we examined the relationship between youth’s caffeine use and subjective ratings of their sleep in the natural environment. Because of the potential bidirectional relationships between sleep and caffeine use, we tested two sets of lagged linear mixed effects models: (a) subjective sleep predicting caffeine use the next day, and (b) caffeine use during the day predicting that night’s sleep ratings.
Mixed models included fixed effects for diagnostic group, sleep or caffeine use, and the interaction between the two. There were no significant main effects or interactions in any of the models testing whether subjective sleep predicted caffeine use the next day (all p’s >. 05). There were also no main effects or interactions in the models testing whether caffeine use during the day predicted that night’s sleep ratings (all p’s > . 05), with the exception of a trend for greater caffeine use during the day to predict more nighttime awakenings that night (F(1, 350) = 3. 23; p = . 07; 95% CI = –. 2 to . 00; d = . 19). Relationships Between Caffeine Use and Negative Affect Finally, we examined whether caffeine use was associated with youth’s negative affect. Separate models were computed for each of the four negative affect scales: “sadness,” “anger,” “nervous,” and “upset. ” Mixed effects models included main effects for number of caffeinated beverages and diagnostic group as well as the interaction between caffeine consumption and diagnostic group predicting mean levels of negative affect across the day. Caffeine use was not related to sadness, anger or feeling upset (all p’s >. 5), however, there was an interaction between diagnostic group and caffeine use in predicting youth’s feelings of nervousness (F(1, 638) = 6. 02; p ; . 05; 95% CI = –. 12 to –. 01; d = . 69). To interpret this interaction, we conducted mixed effects models predicting nervousness from caffeine use separately for each diagnostic group. This analysis indicated that daily caffeine use was positively associated with daily nervousness for youth with MDD (coefficient = . 03, t = 2. 99, p ; . 01; 95% CI = . 01 to . 04) but not for controls (coefficient = –. 2, t = –1. 56, p = . 13; 95% CI = –. 04 to . 01). | Discussion | Top Abstract Method Results Discussion Acknowledgments References | This is the first study of which we are aware to assess both caffeine use and sleep in the natural environments of youth with depression. We found significant differences between healthy and depressed youth in caffeine use and sleep during the baseline weekend before the youth with depression received therapy and/or medication. These differences in caffeine use diminished during the course of treatment. Even though the youth were not xplicitly told to abstain from caffeine during treatment, those with MDD experienced a 4-fold decrease in caffeine consumption across treatment. However, daily sleep did not improve as a function of treatment for depression. The finding that youth with depression used more caffeine than healthy controls at baseline suggests that youth with MDD may use caffeine to help treat symptoms of depression. This is especially interesting given that these differences were found before the youth with MDD began therapy and/or medication. Youth with depression often lack energy and complain of chronic tiredness.
These youth may self-medicate with caffeine to increase alertness (Goldstein, Kaizer, ; Whitby, 1969; Rapoport et al. , 1984). The stimulating effect of caffeine is necessarily followed by a period of withdrawal and return to the original state of low energy, and many youth counter these effects by consuming more caffeine (Goldstein, 1987). This cycle may contribute to increased negative affect and depressive symptoms, particularly during the withdrawal period. However, contrary to our hypotheses, caffeine use and sleep were not directly related to each other.
We found that youth who used more caffeine did not report more trouble sleeping that night, with the exception of a trend for youth who used more caffeine to report more awakenings that night. Surprisingly, youth who had more trouble sleeping did not report using more caffeine the next day. This finding suggests that the youth in our sample were not using caffeine to combat sleepiness specifically associated with poor sleep the previous night, although it is still possible that they were experiencing generalized fatigue and low energy associated with depression.
It is also possible that the timing of caffeine use may impact sleep differently. For example, caffeine use in the evening may be more related to sleep difficulties than caffeine use in the morning. This should be assessed in future studies. Another possibility is that youth with depression were attempting to utilize caffeine as an affect regulator. The finding that, among youth with MDD only, caffeine use was associated with greater nervousness on the same day supports the suggestion that caffeine plays a role in the regulation of anxiety for youth with MDD.
Unfortunately, because we only assessed caffeine use once a day, we are not able to disentangle whether nervous affect led to greater use of caffeine, or whether greater use of caffeine led to greater nervousness among youth with depression. In fact, it is likely that bidirectional relationships exist between caffeine use and nervousness in youth with depression that can lead to a spiraling of irritability and anxious arousal. It seems that comorbid anxiety disorders in the youth with MDD were driving the overall effect of diagnosis. This further supports our speculation that caffeine may be used as an affect regulator.
In addition, healthy youth with higher levels of anxiety may consume higher levels of caffeine. It will be important for future studies to address whether youth are using caffeine because they are anxious, or whether they are anxious because they are using caffeine. Youth may also use caffeine for other reasons unrelated to sleep, such as fitting in with peers or attempting to increase positive emotion or arousal. To tap into youth’s motivation for using caffeine, future research should focus on the type and amount of caffeine youth use in different environments.
For example, adolescents may be more likely to drink soda or coffee when socializing with friends. It would also be interesting to ask youth their reasons for choosing to use or not use caffeine at a given time, as well as to examine parents’ role in influencing their youth’s caffeine consumption. It is important to note that we found group differences in caffeine use even though we did not select youth for the study based on a history of high caffeine consumption. Many studies examining caffeine in youth have selected samples with moderate to high levels of caffeine consumption (Bernstein et al. 1998, 2002; Orbeta, Overpeck, Ramcharren, Kogan, ; Ledsky, 2006). In our study, at baseline, our healthy controls were consuming an average of one caffeinated beverage per weekend and our youth with depression were consuming an average of five per weekend. In comparison, most research on caffeine use in youth has only studied those reporting more than one drink per day or after the laboratory administration of high caffeine doses. Thus, it is possible that we would have found stronger relations between sleep and caffeine use in a sample that was selected specifically for higher rates of caffeine consumption.
It is particularly intriguing that caffeine use in youth with depression improved over the course of treatment, despite the fact that these youth were involved in heterogeneous treatments, including cognitive behavioral therapy and medication management with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. This decrease in caffeine use occurred naturally and was not recommended as part of either treatment course. As both type of treatments are presumed to decrease reactivity to and increase ability to cope with negative emotion, this may be one mechanism through which they also contribute to decreased caffeine consumption.
Another possible mechanism is improvements in energy and motivation. Future research using larger samples and more homogeneous treatment modes are, however, needed to replicate and explore this finding. Consistent with previous reports (Bertocci et al. , 2005), the results of this study also show that youth with depression rate their sleep as more disrupted than control youth when asked to subjectively assess their sleep. This finding expands upon previous studies by showing that subjective sleep disturbances are present in the home environment across a 2-month window of time.
Furthermore, we found that although all the youth in the study showed a tendency to rate their sleep as somewhat improved across the 2-month window, there was no improvement specific to being in treatment, and youth with depression still showed several elevated sleep complaints relative to healthy controls following treatment. There are several potential reasons that subjective sleep difficulties persist after treatment for depression. First, after only 8 weeks of treatment, youth in the MDD group may still be in the process of recovery and their sleep patterns may not have returned to normal.
Just as it takes a while for sleep patterns to become dysregulated, it may also take a while for them to become regulated. Second, sleep problems could be trait markers that precede the development of MDD and persist after recovery (Ford ; Patrick, 2001). Finally, it may be necessary to develop adjunctive sleep treatments to enhance the effectiveness of depression treatment programs in eliminating sleep problems in youth with depression. Several limitations of the present study should be addressed.
First, because the MDD sample was relatively small, we were unable to conduct comparison analyses based on the type of treatment received or type of SSRI. The majority of youth with depression in our sample were prescribed SSRI’s and we lacked statistical power to determine whether the types of SSRI’s impact sleep and caffeine use differently. Since anxiety was only assessed in youth with MDD, we were unable to determine whether higher levels of anxiety in healthy youth may impact their caffeine consumption. We included a relatively broad age range and were not able to test interactions between diagnostic group, gender, and development due to ample size limitations. Also, because this project utilized subjective reporting of sleep and caffeine use, there was no objective confirmation of caffeine intake. In addition, youth were required to make their own interpretations on what products contain caffeine, since a list of items containing caffeine was not provided. Finally, we did not collect information on the specific type of caffeine consumed (e. g. , coffee vs. soda) or the exact timing of caffeine consumption, which could have differential effects on affect and sleep, and should be explored in future research. The study also has several strengths.
It utilized an innovative, intensive EMA protocol providing daily use data on caffeine consumption and its links to sleep patterns and daily affect. The study advances previous work in this area by focusing on a rigorously diagnosed clinical sample of youth with depression and utilizing an approach that provides data collected in natural home environments over an extended period of time, and throughout a course of clinical treatment. These findings have potential clinical and methodological implications, suggesting that EMA is a useful approach for understanding sleep and caffeine related-behaviors.
Findings suggest that caffeine consumption may have a role in the clinical presentation of depression, and perhaps anxiety, and that it is sensitive to treatment, but that more work is needed to understand the role of treatment in improving sleep in youth with depression. | Acknowledgments | Top Abstract Method Results Discussion Acknowledgments References | This research was supported by National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) Grant P01 MH41712 (N. D. R. , PI, R. E. D. , Co-PI). We are grateful to Laura Trubnick, Michelle Bertocci, and the staff of the Child and Adolescent
Neurobehavioral Laboratory for their invaluable role in assessing the participants in this study. Conflict of interest: None declared. | Footnotes | *A portion of this data was presented at the Society for Research in Child Development Biennial Meeting, March–April 2007, Boston, MA, USA. The author’s name has been updated. Received May 3, 2007; revision received August 23, 2007; accepted August 24, 2007 ————————————————- http://jpepsy. oxfordjournals. org/cgi/content/full/jsm086v2 Why Sleep Is Important For Your Health Category Rss Feed – http://www.
Journaland. com/rss. php? rss=89 By : Jose Bautista Submitted 2009-08-18 01:03:26 Sleep is very important for your health and when most individuals do not get enough sleep they turn to caffeinated and sugary products for an energy boost. However too much caffeine and sugar is actually damaging to your health in the long run. To be alert during the day and keep you body healthy you need about 8 hours of sleep each night. In order to stay alert during the day people will turn to caffeine and sugary products for energy. This coupled with the lack of sleep does even more damage to your system.
New scientific studies have concluded that consuming too much caffeine and sugar can have detrimental effects on your health. Sugar foods only provide a very short relief to your tiredness. When the sugar wears off you will crash and burn and be worse then you started. Most individuals find themselves to be even sleepier then before and much slower to react. Instead of sugar to keep you alert you should eat foods that combine some protein and carbohydrates. A great example is apple slices with peanut butter. Coffee is regularly consumed for the caffeine to get you going.
However the caffeine in the coffee you drank in the morning will stay in your body for up to 12 hours. The effects of that caffeine can last long after you have finished your coffee. If you have problems sleeping and drink a lot of coffee you should try not drinking coffee. If you feel you still need some caffeine in the morning then try chocolate or soda, as they have smaller amounts of caffeine. Even those that drink decaffeinated coffee are not safe because this type of coffee still has caffeine in it. The caffeine in decaffeinated coffee is equivalent to drinking a 12 ox coke.
Decaffeinated coffee is a good option for individuals that are not sensitive to caffeine. So to be healthy you need to try to cut the caffeine and get a full night’s sleep. If you have trouble falling asleep then exercise can help make you tired. Additionally try cutting down your coffee consumption and get a good night’s rest. Author Resource:- Visit us for more health and diet free resource. ————————————————- http://www. journaland. com/Art/23398/89/Why-Sleep-Is-Important-For-Your-Health. html Caffeine In Coffee and the Effect on our Bodies Health yahhu December 1st. 2008, 3:18pm
Millions of people consume coffee on a daily basis. This rich, smooth taste and the pick-me-up feeling that you can not drink the coffee beat. But what is the caffeine in each cup to our body? Here are the most common side effects of caffeine. Caffeine is a stimulant by the way have a strong effect on the central nervous system. These effects will begin as soon as 15 minutes after drinking up to six hours later. Caffeine can increase blood pressure, your body temperature, heart rate, blood flow to the skin and limbs, blood glucose, gastric acid secretion and as a diuretic. Negative effects of caffeine.
Moderate doses of more than two ounces 6 cups of coffee is very little or no adverse reaction. Excessive caffeine consumption has not been shown to increase the risk of irregular heartbeat, heart disease, high cholesterol, cancer, fibrocistica breast disease or infertility. * It increases your attention and motor activity. * Drinking coffee, contrary to what many think, is not helping when you sober drunk. * The sensitivity to caffeine may vary per person. Some may drink a couple of cups of coffee with almost no side effects. Others are so sensitive to even small doses of caffeine, which is inconvenient. Sensitive drinkers, more than 2 cups oz size of a suitcase at a time, it may be that insomnia, irritability, trembling hands, restlessness, irritability, headache, extra heartbeat and have a difficult time concentrating. * Other side effects, to feel in a temporary increase in blood pressure, respiratory rate and your metabolism. PMS symptoms in May, less conspicuous with caffeine. * Some of the serious long-term side effects of drinking more than ten cups of coffee a day can increase the acidity of stomach problems, design problems and changes in bowel habits. The caffeine may increase your vigilance, particularly in people tired. Caffeinated beverages can help you remain vigilant in the workplace or during the study. * The research by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) has determined there is no difference in how children and adults with caffeine. This means that the long dear the belief that caffeine causes hyperactivity or short attention extends in children is probably not the cause. Just use common sense, from your children to consume foods with a high content of caffeine, like any other food. The caffeine has no effect on reproduction in humans, including pregnant women need to consume products of caffeine in small doses. * The excessive consumption of caffeine can cause lack of sleep, because you might have a tendency to ignore the signs of fatigue from the body. * Too much caffeine can cause anxiety associated with emotions such as sweating, excessive nervousness and agitation. Caffeine is derived from the German word coffee and the French word cafe. You mean coffee. Caffeine is completely absorbed in the body within 30 to 45 minutes and the effects are usually taught in three hours.
Caffeine affects the state of mind, strength, stomach and intestinal cancer, brain activity and the vascular system of the body. E ‘dependence? That depends on who is asked. Some researchers believe that the effects of caffeine withdrawal include a broad spectrum of symptoms such as headache, fatigue, depression, concentration problems, dizziness or sleepiness, irritability and other symptoms similar. The symptoms began within 12-24 hours after abstinence from caffeine products and lasted only 2-9 days. The time that the tests show that some users in May, employees of caffeine.
Other research has found that caffeine is not addictive. Research shows that we have the desire to consume caffeine once again, just for good reasons, such as smell, taste and social aspects of the consumption of caffeine. They believe that caffeine product is only a habit, not a necessity. So if you drink Caffeinated beverages in moderation with which your watch or consume only a small amount to taste, we know what impact it can have on your body. ————————————————- http://www. yahhu. org/health/caffeine-in-coffee-and-the-effect-on-our-bodies. htm Ito ang HTML na salin ng http://web. xtension. uiuc. edu/regions/newsletters/archive/diabetes/pdf/diab-12-06-01-07. pdf. Kusang gumagawa ng mga html na salin ang G o o g l e para sa mga dokumento na nahanap namin sa web. Page 1| December 2006—January 2007 Lack of Sleep Affects Blood Glucose Levels During the holiday season, we often get less sleep than we should or than we would like. Can this affect your diabetes management? Yes! Inadequate sleep results in changes in glucose control in the body. Sleep deprivation (lack of sleep) can result in higher blood glucose levels because of increased production of glucose by the liver.
When sleep is fragmented, there is a release of hormones that can worsen blood glucose levels. Certain hormones related to stress may also become elevated, increasing blood glucose levels or affecting other body functions. What can you do to improve your sleep? Follow these guidelines for healthy sleeping: Sleep and wake at regular times. Sleep in your bed and avoid using the bed for activities such as watching television, balancing a checkbook, or working. Sleep in a quiet, dark room. Avoid strenuous exercise for about three hours before going to bed. Decrease or eliminate caffeine and nicotine.
Allow one hour to “unwind” before bedtime. For instance, have a routine before going to bed that is quieting, like reading a few pages, listening to music, or taking a warm bath. Avoid alcohol around bedtime because it can fragment sleep. Avoid napping after 4 P . M . Contributed by Shalini Manchanda, M. D. , College of Medicine, UIUC To receive this newsletter by mail, contact your local U of I Extension office. Written by Karen Chapman Novakofski Associate Professor of Nutrition www. extension. uiuc. edu Page 2| This information is for educational purposes only.
References to commercial products and trade names, and to web sites not affiliated with University of Illinois Extension, do not constitute endorsement by the University of Illinois and do not imply discrimination against other similar products or web sites that are not listed. Medication Update Insulin is needed to maintain blood glucose levels within a target range. Normally produced by the pancreas, those with diabetes may need to take insulin injections. Another hormone produced by the pancreas is amylin. Amylin works with insulin and helps to control how quickly glucose from meal enters the blood from the intestines. Researchers have found that some people with diabetes have too little amylin as well as too little insulin. A new medication has been approved that is a synthetic form of amylin, called Symlin. Those with diabetes who have difficulty achieving their target blood glucose levels although they follow their medication and dietary prescriptions might benefit from this new medication. Insulin levels usually are decreased, and amylin injections are prescribed before meals. Because amylin lowers blood glucose levels, careful self- monitoring of blood glucose evels is important. People with a history of low blood glucose probably should not take amylin. If you have questions about this new medication, talk to your health care provider or pharmacist. The Diabetes Menu Cookbook: Delicious Special-Occasion Recipes for Family and Friends by Barbara Scott-Goodman, Kalia Doner, and Judd Pilossof; 236 pages, hardcover. Published by John Wiley and Sons, 2006. This newest edition incorporates the most recent nutritional recommendations of the American Diabetes Association and explains the latest changes to the USDA food pyramid and what they mean for you.
My Diabetes Organizer: The Essential Planner and Record- Keeper for People with Type 2 Diabetes by Gina Barbetta and Valerie Rossi; 84 pages, spiral-bound. North Hill Publishing, 2006. Packed with charts, guides, and advice, this organizer helps to simplify the lives of people with diabetes. Patients can keep track of test results, contact information, and medication records. The organizer features 12-month check-up charts, and envelopes and pockets for bills and business cards. 2 The Difference Between Macro- and Micronutrients News and Resources
Food is made of nutrients. Sometimes these nutrients are divided into “macronutrients” and “micronutrients. ” Macronutrients are nutrients that provide calories (energy). Since “macro” means large, macronutrients are nutrients needed in large amounts. There are three categories of macronutrients: Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Fats. While each of these macronutrients provides calories, the amount of calories that each one provides varies. One gram of carbohydrate or protein provides 4 calories per gram. One gram of fat provides 9 calories per gram.
If you looked at the Nutrition Facts label of a food product and it said 12 grams of carbohydrate, 0 grams of fat, and 0 grams of protein per serving, you would know that this food has about 48 calories per serving (12 grams carbohydrate multiplied by 4 calories for each gram of carbohydrate = 48 calories). The only other substance that provides calories is alcohol, which provides 7 calories per gram. Alcohol, however, is not a macronutrient because we do not need it for survival. Micronutrients are nutrients that our bodies need in smaller amounts and include vitamins and minerals.
While micronutrients are needed for health, they do not provide calories. Page 3| 3 Holiday Broccoli Tomato Salad 7 1-cup servings 6? cups broccoli flowerets 1 teaspoon dried dill ? cup sun-dried tomatoes in oil, drained 4 ounces low-fat mozzarella cheese 2 tablespoons oil from tomatoes 1 tablespoon lemon juice Directions 1. Slice flowerets and tomatoes to about same size. Place in bowl. 2. Toss with lemon juice, add oil. 3. Cut cheese into cubes. Add to salad. Toss with dill. Per serving: 110 calories; 6 grams protein; 9 grams cholesterol; 0 grams fiber; 6 grams carbohydrate; 8 grams fat; 63% calories from fat; 113 mg. odium Recipe Corner Dark Chocolate Strawberry Fondue 16 servings, 3 strawberries each 48 strawberries 4 ounces unsweetened chocolate ? cup skim milk 5 tablespoons Splenda ® Directions 1. Place chocolate squares in a microwave-safe bowl and microwave on High in 1-minute increments until melted. 2. Whisk in milk and Splenda ® . 3. Dip strawberries, using about 1 teaspoon of chocolate fondue per berry. Per serving: 52 calories; 1 gram protein; 0 grams cholesterol; 2 grams fiber; 5 grams carbohydrate; 4 grams fat; 70% calories from fat; 6 mg. sodium Page 4| Inside . . . Lack of Sleep Affects Blood Glucose Levels
The Difference Between Macro- and Micronutrients Medication Update Recipes and Resources University of Illinois/U. S. Department of Agriculture/Local Extension Councils Cooperating University of Illinois Extension provides equal opportunities in programs and employment. Researchers in New Zealand analyzed 27 studies that included 1,003 patients to determine the effects of different types of exercise on hemoglobin A1C, a measure of how well a person’s blood glucose is controlled long term. The researchers found hemoglobin A1C levels fell by about 0. 8 percent in cases where the exercise was continued for 12 weeks or longer.
Combining aerobic exercise with resistance training had somewhat more of an effect on the hemoglobin A1C than either type of exercise alone. However, more intense exercise programs did not appear to be more effective. The researchers thought this may be because the more intense programs were more difficult for people to continue as a long-term lifestyle habit. ————————————————- http://docs. google. com/gview? a=v&q=cache:pQFHzM1MVoQJ:web. extension. uiuc. edu/regions/newsletters/archive/diabetes/pdf/diab-12-06-01-07. pdf+lack+sleep+blood+sugar&hl=tl&gl=ph
The proper wear and appearance of the army PT uniform I am writing and essay today the proper wear and appearance of the army physical fitness uniform because I failed to meet the standards and did not have my uniform complete. The army P T uniform consists of the following items: gray army tee shirt, black army running shorts, running shoes, white socks and a reflective belt. On days when the weather is cold you may be authorized to wear your “high speeds”, which consist of an army physical fitness jacket long black running pants, green or black physical fitness cap and gloves with green or black inserts.
When I went to the bathroom at 0115 at night here in Iraq I had on my black PT shorts, my gray pt shit untucked, and no reflective belt. So because of my actions I am writing this essay on the proper wear and appearance of the army physical fitness uniform. The proper way to wear your army physical fitness uniform is: on cold days you must wear your long sleeve physical fitness tee shirt, black running shorts, with your army physical fitness jacket and long black running pants on over your shorts and long sleeve tee shirt.
Along with pt gloves with inserts black or green physical fitness cap white socks and running shoes. All of these items must be pulled up to your waist line and not sagging or untucked all tee shirts will be tucked into your shorts. While in the army physical fitness uniform you will always be clean shaven, with a clean haircut and always wear the uniform with pride. When it comes to wearing your army physical fitness uniform The physical fitness uniform (PFU) is authorized for year-round wear by all personnel, when pre scribed by the commander.
Soldiers may wear the army physical fitness uniform off post per their Commanders guidelines and to what your commander finds suitable. Commanders may authorize the wear of commercial running shoes, calf-length or ankle-length, plain white socks with no logos, gloves, reflective belts or vests, long underwear, and other items appropriate to the weather conditions and type of activity. If soldiers wear long underwear or other similar items, they must conceal them from view with the army physical itness jacket and long black running pants when wearing the army physical fitness uniform, or the running jacket and long black pants if wearing the army physical fitness uniform. Soldiers are authorized to wear commercially purchased gray or black spandex shorts under the army physical fitness uniform shorts. The length of the shorts must end above the knee or higher. The commercial shorts must be plain, with no logos, patterns, or obtrusive markings. Soldiers are not required to buy the spandex shorts.
The army physical fitness uniform is authorized for wear on and off duty, on and off the installation, when authorized by the commander. Soldiers may wear all or part of the army physical fitness uniform with civilian attire off the installation, when authorized by the commander. The only insignia authorized for wear on the army physical fitness uniform is the physical fitness badge. When the physical fitness badge is worn, it is sewn on the upper left front side of the army physical fitness T-shirt, whether it be both long sleeve and short sleeve or just one or the other and the army physical fitness jacket.
On the army physical fitness uniform running jacket, the insignia is sewn centered one half inch above the word “Army. ” Soldiers may not mix or match and military and civilian work out clothes. Soldiers may not roll or push up the sleeves of the army physical fitness jacket. Soldiers may wear the sleeves of the army physical fitness uniform jacket cuffed or uncuffed; they may not cuff the army physical fitness uniform jacket sleeves. Soldiers will wear the black knit cap or green knit cap pulled down snugly on the head, with the bottom edge of the cap folded up.
Soldiers will not roll the edge of the cap. A similar, commercially designed black or green knit cap is authorized for wear. There are no restrictions on the combination of army physical fitness uniform items worn, unless the commander has pre scribed a particular combination for formation. By writing this essay and getting all the information on the proper wear and appearance of the army physical fitness uniform, the standards will always be met and never taken for granted.
The army physical fitness uniform is consists of articles of clothing bag items. Each article of clothing of the army physical fitness uniform is identified with a national stock number (N S N) and a Defense Logistics Agency (D L A) contract number printed on a label and sewn into the garment. If the label does not contain this information, the garment is not the authorized garment. Pregnant soldiers will wear the army physical fitness uniform until the uniform becomes too small or uncomfortable.
Pregnant soldiers are authorized to wear the Tee -shirt outside the black running shorts. At no time will commanders require pregnant soldiers to purchase a larger army physical fitness uniform in order to accommodate the pregnancy. When the uniform becomes too small or uncomfortable, pregnant soldiers may wear equivalent civilian workout clothes. We as soldiers are to wear every single one of our uniforms from army physical fitness uniforms, to class A’s and other dress uniforms, to flight suits to Nuclear Biological Chemical suits (NBC).
That day I was not wearing my uniform with pride nor was I showing any care at all that I made my platoon, my company, my commander, my first sergeant, and all of my other fellow soldiers look bad and blatantly show that I didn’t care. No where in AR Six Seventy dash one (AR 670-1) does it say at all that untucked t-shirts are authorized as part of the army physical fitness uniform. So I advise you all as a fellow soldier do not make the same mistake I did and disregard the army physical fitness uniform standards and company guide lines.
“Sunt Leones” This poem shows some of the most representative stylistic features that characterise Stevie Smith’s poetry. Economy of expression and verbal eclecticism are two of the most remarkable aspects of her poetry, but maybe the originality of Smith’s work lies especially in the way she combines her poetic comic voice with the seriousness of the subjects dealt with. “Sunt Leones” clearly exemplifies these features. The poem is a kind of theological speculation developed in a predominantly comic tone.
Stevie Smith was a declared religious skeptic who (in her own words) was “always in danger of falling into belief” (NAEL, 8th edition, vol. 2, 2006: 2373). She, then, felt somewhat attracted to religious themes, and in “Sunt Leones”, she deploys an ingenious reflection about the role the lions that devoured the Christians at the Roman Coliseum could have played in the consolidation of Christianity. The importance given to the fact is clearly expressed in the final couplet, in which the word “Lionhood” (with initial capital “L”) particularly strikes our attention.
Therefore, on the one hand, we have a serious subject matter in both religious and metaphysical terms, since the poem deals not only with Christianity but also with death itself. On the other hand, the seriousness of the theme contrasts with its verbal and formal expression. As regards the metre, the poem does not have a regular pattern: the length of the lines varies from seven up to sixteen syllables, and the rhythm is also variable. However, except in the lines 5-7, the poem follows an almost regular pattern of rhyme.
It has two different effects: in some cases, there appears a rhyming iambic pentametre couplet, which is a classic literary pattern (for instance, in lines 15-16); in some other cases, the rhyming lines seems more like a nursery rhyme. It is that combination of classical and popular forms which strikes the reader. At the same time, the extensive use of enjambment provides the poem with a prose tone, thus challenging the boundaries between genres.
The most clear example of enjambment appears in the lines 2-3, with a line ending in a preposition (“…has now been seen a / not entirely negligible part”). Eclecticism is particularly remarkable in her verbal expression, which includes complex phrases with refined vocabulary (“not entirely negligible part”, “liturgically sacrificial hue”), colloquialisms (“well”, “it appears”), journalistic expressions (“the state of things”), and even a phrase in Latin (the title).
The mixture of forms and registers combines with the use of wit and humour (predominantly dark humour, as we can see in lines 11-12: “And if the Christians felt a little blue– / Well, people being eaten often do”), so that the contrast between content and form, between solemnity and irony, is the most striking feature of the poem. In short, both the content and the rhetorical devices used by the poet ultimately aim at challenging all kind of traditional patterns or beliefs, either literary or spiritual.
Trade is not an end in itself, but a means to economic growth and national development. The primary purpose is not the mere earning of foreign exchange, but the stimulation of greater economic activity. For India to become a major player in world trade, an all encompassing, comprehensive view needs to be taken for the overall development of the country’s foreign trade. While increase in exports is of vital importance, we have also to facilitate those imports which are required to stimulate our economy.
Coherence and consistency among trade and other economic policies is important for maximizing the contribution of such policies to development. Thus, while incorporating the existing practice of enunciating an annual Foreign Trade Policy, it is necessary to go much beyond and take an integrated approach to the developmental requirements of India’s foreign trade. [pic][pic][pic][pic]The Foreign Trade Policy is built around two major objectives.
These are: • To double our percentage share of global merchandise trade within the next five years; and • To act as an effective instrument of economic growth by giving a thrust to employment generation. STRATEGY For achieving these objectives, the following strategies need to be adopted: • Removing government controls and creating an atmosphere of trust and transparency to promote entrepreneurship, industrialization and trades. • Simplification of commercial and legal procedures and bringing down transaction costs. Simplification of levies and duties on inputs used in export products. • Facilitating development of India as a global hub for manufacturing, trading and services. • Generating additional employment opportunities, particularly in semi-urban and rural areas, and developing a series of ‘Initiatives’ for each of these sectors. • Facilitating technological and infrastructural upgradation of all the sectors of the Indian economy, especially through imports and thereby increasing value addition and productivity, while attaining global standards of quality. Neutralizing inverted duty structures and ensuring that India’s domestic sectors are not disadvantaged in the • Free Trade Agreements / Regional Trade Agreements / Preferential Trade Agreements that India enters into in order to enhance exports. • Upgradation of infrastructural network, both physical and virtual, related to the entire Foreign Trade chain, to global standards. • Revitalizing the Board of Trade by redefining its role, giving it due recognition and inducting foreign trade experts while drafting Trade Policy. Involving Indian Embassies as an important member of export strategy and linking all commercial houses at international locations through an electronic platform for real time trade intelligence, inquiry and information dissemination. The new Exim-Policy is essentially a roadmap for the development of India’s foreign trade. It contains the basic principles and points the direction in which we propose to go. By virtue of its very dynamics, a trade policy cannot be fully comprehensive in all its details. It would naturally require modification from time to time.
We propose to do this through continuous updating, based on the inevitable changing dynamics of international trade. It is in partnership with business and industry that we propose to erect milestones on this roadmap. With a view to doubling our percentage share of global trade within 5 years and expanding employment opportunities, especially in semi urban and rural areas, certain special focus initiatives have been identified for the agriculture, handlooms, handicraft, gems & jewellery and leather sectors. The thrust sectors indicated below shall be extended the following facilities: AGRICULTURE
A new scheme called the Vishesh Krishi Upaj Yojana (Special Agricultural Produce Scheme) for promoting the export of fruits, vegetables, flowers, minor forest produce, and their value added products has been introduced (Para 3. 8). Funds shall be earmarked under ASIDE for development of Agri Export Zones (AEZ) Units in AEZ shall be exempt from Bank Guarantee under the EPCG Scheme. Import of capital goods shall be permitted duty free under the EPCG Scheme Units in AEZ shall be exempt from Bank Guarantee under the EPCG Scheme. Capital goods imported under EPCG shall be permitted to be installed anywhere in the AEZ.
Import of restricted items, such as panels, shall be allowed underNew towns of export excellence with a threshold limit of Rs 250 crore shall be notified the various export promotion schemes. Import of inputs such as pesticides shall be permitted under the Advance Licence for agro exports. HANDLOOMS Specific funds would be earmarked under MAI/ MDA Scheme for promoting handloom exports Duty free import entitlement of specified trimmings and embellishments shall be 5% of FOB value of exports during the previous financial year.
Duty free import entitlement of hand knotted carpet samples shall be 1% of FOB value of exports during the previous financial year. Duty free import of old pieces of hand knotted carpets on consignment basis for re-export after repair shall be permitted. New towns of export excellence with a threshold limit of Rs 250 crore shall be notified. HANDICRAFTS New Handicraft SEZs shall be established which would procure products from the cottage sector and do the finishing for exports Duty free import entitlement of trimmings and embellishments shall be 5% of the FOB value of exports during the previous financial year.
The entitlement is broad banded, and shall extend also to merchant exporters tied up with supporting manufacturers The Handicraft Export Promotion Council shall be authorized to import trimmings, embellishments and consumables on behalf of those exporters for whom directly importing may not be viableSpecific funds would be earmarked under MAI & MDA Schemes for promoting Handicraft exports CVD is exempted on duty free import of trimmings, embellishments and consumables. GEMS AND JEWELLERY
Import of gold of 18 carat and above shall be allowed under the replenishment scheme Duty free import entitlement of consumables for metals other than Gold, Platinum shall be 2% of FOB value of exports during the previous financial year. Duty free import entitlement of commercial samples shall be Rs 100,000. Duty free re-import entitlement for rejected jewellery shall be 2% of the FOB value of exports Cutting and polishing of gems and jewellery, shall be treated as manufacturing for the purposes of exemption under Section 10A of the Income Tax Act LEATHER AND FOOTWEAR
Duty free import entitlement of specified items shall be 5% of FOB value of exports during the preceding financial year. The duty free entitlement for the import of trimmings, embellishments and footwear components for footwear (leather as well as synthetic), gloves, travel bags and handbags shall be 3% of FOB value of exports of the previous financial year. The entitlement shall also cover packing material, such as printed and non printed shoeboxes, small cartons made of wood, tin or plastic materials for packing footwear Machinery and equipment for Effluent Treatment Plants shall be exempt from basic customs duty.
Re-export of unsuitable imported materials such as raw hides & skins and wet blue leathers is permittedCVD is exempted on lining and interlining material notified at S. No 168 of Customs Notification No 21/2002 dated 01. 03. 2002 CVD is exempted on raw, tanned and dressed fur skins falling under Chapter 43 of ITC(HS). EXPORT PROMOTION SCEHEMES A. Target plus scheme to accelerate growth of exports. B. Vishesh krishi upaj yojna for agro-exports. C. Served from India scheme D. Additional flexibility under EPCG E. Import of fuel under DFRC entitlement allowed to be transferred to marketing agencies authorized by Min of Petroleum and Natural Gas.
F. The DEFB scheme will be continued. G. EOUs shall be exempted from Service Tax in proportion to their exported goods and services. H. A scheme to establish Free Trade and Warehousing Zone is introduced to create trade-related infrastructure to facilitate import and export with freedom to carry out trade transactions in free currency. In order to showcase India’s industrial and trade prowess to its best advantage and leverage existing facilities to enhance the quantity of space and service the govt plans to transform Pragati Maidan into a world-class complex with visitor friendliness ingress and egress system.
ADVANTAGES OF INTERNATIONAL TRADE International trade allows countries to exchange good and services with the use of money as a medium of exchange. Several advantages can be identified with reference to international trade : • Greater variety of goods available for consumption – international trade brings in different varieties of a particular product from different destinations. This gives consumers a wider array of choices which will not only improve their quality of life but as a whole it will help the country grow. Efficient allocation and better utilization of resources since countries tend to produce goods in which they have a comparative advantage. When countries produce through comparative advantage, wasteful duplication of resources is prevented. It helps save the environment from harmful gases being leaked into the atmosphere and also provides countries with a better marketing power. • Promotes efficiency in production as countries will try to adopt better methods of production to keep costs down in order to remain competitive.
Countries that can produce a product at the lowest possible cost will be able to gain a larger share in the market. Therefore an incentive to produce efficiently arises. This will help standards of the product to increase and consumers will have a good quality product to consume. • More employment could be generated as the market for the countries’ goods widens through trade. International trade helps generate more employment through the establishment of newer industries to cater to the demands of various countries. This will help countries bring down their unemployment rates.
INTRODUCTION The book title is entitled TPM: Case Studies, featuring the Factory Management journal that was written by Seiichi Nakajima and other members from the Japan Institute of Plant Maintenance, then edited by Nikkan Kogyo Simbun for the book. The journal introduces TPM and its relationship to Just-in-Time manufacturing, discussing the six major losses in manufacturing soon after, with the addition of analyzing these losses through TPM techniques. Since the journal is a collection of insights from Japanese companies, the book features them as well.
Companies like Toyota, Togo Seisakusyo Corporation, NBC Corporation, Nishi Nihon Sugar Manufacturing Co. , Ltd. share their TPM methods and what trappings they resolved. The efforts of Esme McTighe for editing and production management, Michael Kelsey for translation and art/text integration, David Richardson for the illustrations, and a few others make this book possible EVALUATION I. Use of TPM in the General Sense Toyota’s very own ‘Father of Production System’, Mr. Taiichi Ohno, viewed that Just-in-Time (JIT) and TPM cannot be separated.
His idea of both concepts being intertwined with each other is what Toyota Production System thrives from — resulting to a thorough elimination of waste by asking ‘why’ five times. With this ideology, the Toyota Production System gears toward having cross-trained employees, flow creation, and to avoid defects. Broken down, it consists of JIT and autonomation. JIT is uses the kanban, which is a reference in achieving the right parts at the right times, and at the right amounts (completely eliminating inventory), in conjunction with a full implementation of standard work: cycle time, order of work performance, and standard work-in-process.
Autonomation is stopping the line when a problem occurs, thereby eliminating defects in the long run. It consists of visual controls like signal lights and operable rates, where maintenance is justified and setup change time is reduced. His grasp of TPM leads him to promote Preventive Maintenance to be performed by all employees — from the top management to the line workers. This involves basic concepts of pursuing a more economic way of operating, cutting the six losses to zero; stopping problems before they happen; and establishing activities that is spread throughout all departments involving motivational controls.
Togo Seisakusyo Corporation – a company that makes wire springs and thin plate springs fabricated from steel, resin springs, subassemblies for them. The first fuel crisis exposed the weaknesses of the company’s corporate structure, leading to a series of structural improvements. Later on when competition was stiff, the company tried to find a way to improve itself, and a survey conducted in 1983 revealed TPM to be the desirable program.
Its basic goal was to use the participation of all company employees in PM activities, thereby increasing the efficiency of all company personnel and equipment, expand the corporate base, and to nurture their foundation of overall capability. The company integrated the 5S program as a backdrop to the TPM activities it was trying to apply. The 5S formula was embedded in the workplace and equipments, positively influencing people along with their perception and behavior, which extends itself to maintenance, resulting in the gradual elimination of failure and brief stop causes.
NBC Corporation – a company that manufactures printed circuit boards for automotive use, found itself producing below target with occasional quality defects caused by equipment. Needing to maintain a level of quality and reliability to satisfy customers, the president launched a TPM program with a set of unified goals for all corporate divisions. It was aimed to receive 100% participation from all employees in an attempt to improve the corporate structure and efficiency. Specifically, the desired outcome from this is to increase the levels of control, technology, and skills within the company.
Three components to this project are: to reduce quality defects caused by equipment problems, increase productivity rates for equipment and increase efficient use, and cleanse the working atmosphere to make it more vital. These goals together with complete employee participation were designed to address quality and preventive maintenance, increased productivity, maintenance programs, a revitalized workplace, and safety-health-environmental controls. Nishi Nihon Sugar Manufacturing Co. , Ltd. a joint production company for Dainippon Sugar and Meiji Sugar produces refined sugar products that are granule, powdered, as well as liquid sugar and sugar cubes. Despite the increase in plant productivity ratios, the industry was trapped in a period of structural instability, which was propelled by the centralized production from an early stage by the Mitsubishi Sugar Group. The company, needing the strength to survive — and finding that strength immediately — introduced a basic program for corporate structural improvement, where it was based on the pillars of zero defects and maximization of equipment.
The main goal of introducing the TPM programs is to win the PM Prize. To achieve that, the firm had to find a way to unite the hearts and minds of employees who came from two competing companies and make them into a single, coherent team. II. Process and Implementation of TPM The first company to implement a TPM program in Japan was Nippondenso, a member of Toyota Group. In 1971, Japan Institute for Plant Maintenance (JIPM) recognized the results of the program by awarding “Prize for PM Excellence in the Plant” — more simply known as the “PM Prize”.
Toyota used the award as a focal point to encourage the other companies in the group to introduce TPM programs. A number of them also received their own PM Prizes when they did. It has been said before that JIT and TPM cannot be separated. When production lines are to be operated at the same time, they should always be in an operable condition of 100% production potential. To ensure this condition, constant maintenance is required, and setup time must be short. Among the goals of TPM are the total elimination of machine failures and setup preparation time.
TPM should be introduced after JIT had been established and develop the two on a single plane. To counter the six major losses from equipment, which are losses from equipment failure; losses from setup adjustments; losses from brief stops; losses from speed drops; losses from process defects; and losses from startups, Preventive Maintenance (PM) and Corrective Maintenance (CM) are to be integrated. PM is the elimination of failures before they happen, while CM is to increase overall reliability and maintainability.
This is supported by use of visual controls in the work area like tags on problem areas, color-coded pipes, and call lights that hung from ceilings to show which lines are causing problems; in collaboration with cross-trained workers that are able to fill a number of different jobs. In conjunction with the second support, workers are tasked to perform daily preventive maintenance on their own assigned equipments. Togo Seisakusyo wanted to create more efficient lines where activities centered mainly around production technology and human efficiency, machine efficiency, and materials flow efficiency are subject to revision.
Several stages were gone through to complete the TPM program. Stage 1: A member of the maintenance staff assigned to each workplace comes to conduct classes in both theory and practice regarding lubrication, tightening, and cleaning of air blowers. Stage 2: Teams were formed, composed of representatives of manufacturing, maintenance, and production engineering. They studied areas where failures had been most obvious during the previous year, lay out the ideal situation for those areas, and implement a number of improvements to meet those ideals.
Some examples were to install limit switches and bearings. Each team prepared an “eight component inspection table” for each machine in its jurisdiction, and training was offered in inspection procedures and recovery methods. Stage 3: Quality defects were associated with equipment problems. After discovery, they were controlled by means of daily inspection tables and PM calendars. Stage 4: The final stage where steps were taken to ensure that the activities of the first three stages can be implemented and maintained, stepping up the autonomous maintenance activities.
Inspection cycles are lengthened to accord with the PM activities in the workplace, inspections are simplified, and predictive maintenance is introduced to maintain a trouble-free environment and cut costs. For NBC Corporation, the goals of its program require implementation through 100% employee participation in activities designed around five major concerns: quality and PM, increased productivity, maintenance programs, a revitalized workplace, safety/health/environmental controls.
Quality and PM concerns call for elimination of dirt and foreign matter, and environmental preparation in the company’s Electronics Division; reducing equipment-related defects by applying daily and periodic inspections tied with MTBF analysis; and the use of MQ analysis for both Electronics Division and Wire Harness Division. Productivity is to be increased with more effective equipment use and automation, which are then tied together with setup time reduction.
Maintenance activities were initiated by creating short texts for autonomous maintenance, where the maintenance staff picked up a program of corrective maintenance involving PM analysis and MTBF analysis. Workplace revitalization meant applying 5S activities with complete employee participation, creation of QC circles, having a creative suggestion system, and providing personnel training. Finally, regarding safety/health/environmental controls, safety patrols were inaugurated to discover potentially unsafe areas and improve them. This involved training people for the proper certifications.
Nishi Nihon Sugar’s FE (full efficiency) Campaign in pursuing zero defects and equipment maximization must eliminate several factors that serve as obstacles of the TPM program. They are human weaknesses, organizational weaknesses, and equipment weaknesses. Solutions rely on six fundamental activities, which are (1) autonomous maintenance, (2) specialized maintenance, (3) education and training, (4) 5S activities, (5) individual improvements, and (6) administrative efficiency. Vitalizing the workforce includes activities 1, 3, and 4. Vitalizing the organization includes activities 1, 3, 4, and 6.
Vitalizing the equipment, profits, and protecting the environment/assuring quality include activities 1, 2, 3, and 5. Once these three are remedied, there will be an elevated corporate image, improved corporate structure and competitive strength, and a stronger ability to respond to demands of the times — all essential for corporation survival. III. Problems Encountered with TPM There was no particular mention of problems in applying TPM on the book, but as far as introducing new concepts in traditional routines and practices goes, there is always an adjustment phase.
This is especially true with Nishi Nihon Sugar since it is a company made up of two separate entities, which had to go through meeting halfway with standards apart from the new TPM program guidelines. IV. Benefits of TPM Usage Toyota presented a table that showed concrete benefits of using TPM. The table is comprised of comparative results between the companies that used conventional methods, those that partially implemented TPM, and those that completely implemented TPM. (1) LEAD TIME: Conventional Methods – 17. days production time, 44 days total time; Partial TPM – 12 days production time, 41. 7 days total time; Complete TPM – 3. 75 days production time, 7. 75 days total time. (2) INVENTORY: Conventional Methods – 17-day supply materials, 16. 3-day supply in-process work, 14. 6-day products; Partial TPM – 11. 2-day supply materials, 11. 2-day supply in-process work, 8. 9-day supply products; Complete TPM – 4. 2-day supply materials, 3. 2-day supply in-process work, 2. 1-day supply products. (3) CHANGING MODELS: Conventional Methods – 93 min/changeover average, 6. changeovers/week, 404 min/week total time; Partial TPM – 52. 5 min/changeover average, 7. 5 changeovers/week, 425 min/week total time; Complete TPM – 15. 4 min/changeover average, 14. 3 changeovers/week, 87 min/week total time. NBC Corporation’s TPM implementation shows the following improvements (all in 3 years time): 30% increase in Value Added per Person, 74% reduction in In-Process Defect Rate, 100% reduction in Rate of Accidents Causing Work Stops and Pollution Incidents, 33% increase in Operation Rate of Critical Equipment, and 98% reduction in Rate of Failure Stoppages.
Nishi Nihon Sugar has shared these improvements regarding TPM use: 30% increase in Productivity (3 years time span), 87% reduction in Failure (4 years time span), 78% reduction in Shutdown Time (3 years time span), 13% reduction in Energy Use (3 years time span), and 100% reduction in Labor Accidents (4 years time span). CONCLUSION The book is a wonderful package for people who are considering to introduce TPM in their company.
It’s basically divided into two parts: a chapter comprising popular TPM concepts, with examples, and a concise study of select companies and the immediate improvements that came with starting their TPM programs. Of course, the book doesn’t cover all principles of TPM, but it’s a good source if an overview is what the reader looks for.
Discuss the Role of the Concepts of the Seduced and the Repressed for Understanding the Place of Consumption in Contemporary Consumer Society
ESSAY PLAN [pic] Environmental unsustainability / Vivienne Brown p. 115 Discuss the role of the concepts of the seduced and repressed for understanding the place of consumption in contemporary consumer society. This essay will give two sides to Bauman’s concepts and address the implications in order to ascertain whether or not the roles of these concepts do help us to understand the place of consumption, in what is increasingly being referred to by many social scientists as a consumer society. Consumer society is a term used by many social scientists, including Zygmunt
Bauman, when referring to contemporary Western society. Hetherington argues that the conceptual shift away from the term ‘industrial society’ to ‘consumer society’ stemmed from the decline in traditional manufacturing industries in the 1980’s. This resulted in an increase in employability in the middle class service sector for the working classes, enabling the masses to afford and enjoy the trappings that were previously only attainable by the well paid and wealthy. As a result of this, class divisions were less obvious and consumption became a major factor in determining how society was characterised. 2009, p. 22). Bauman’s concepts of the seduced and repressed refers to his categorisation of consumers based on their ability to consume effectively in contemporary consumer society. Some of the factors taken in to account by Bauman for categorisation in to either group include: wealth, age, ability, disability, social status, freedom and discrimination. Bauman argues that the seduced are the consumers that are able to buy into a particular lifestyle and are able to feel included in to certain social groups. Hetherington notes that Bauman argues the seduced are consumers that an display their perceived membership of social status to others by being able to purchase goods for reasons other than that of the function of the good itself. (2009, p 27). For example a ? 5 watch from a petrol station tells one the time, however, an ?80,000 Patek Philippe watch does much more than this. It is a non verbal means of conveying to others, the owner’s status as a wealthy individual. In this respect, Bauman’s concept of the seduced is similar to Veblen’s concept of conspicuous consumption. Hetherington notes that Veblen’s concept involves consuming as not nly a means to display to others one’s wealth but also as a means to join in, to be included in social circles of where the consumer feels that they belong. (2009, p. 33). However, consumers that have disposable income may choose not to fall in to Bauman’s category of the seduced for social, ethical or environmental reasons. For example, a consumer with the financial means of shopping for clothes in designer boutiques may choose not to be manipulated by media and buy clothes from local markets or second hand shops. An ethically minded consumer may choose not to buy items from the ‘big four’ supermarket chains, knowing that certain items may ave been manufactured by children in textile factories in Bangladesh for a pittance of a wage much like Lina (Taylor et al, 2009, p. 88). Therefore, by choosing not to participate; consumers are not necessarily of low status as Bauman would have us believe. As stated earlier, Bauman’s concepts of the seduced and repressed do not hinge singularly on a consumer’s ability to spend money, although this is a major factor in his argument. Bauman argues that consumers that fall in to his category of the repressed include everyone else that is not able to participate in being able to choose a particular lifestyle.
According to Bauman’s concepts, a repressed consumer would include a consumer with ethical beliefs that would be forced to put aside those beliefs because of financial reasons. An example of this would be a single mother on a low income who although aware of the exploitation and working conditions that children in Bangladesh and similar countries are forced to work, in order to supply the likes of Primark, still has to clothe her children. Local markets with local products were possibly 15 years ago, the place to shop for inexpensive items. Those days have gone due to the power of the ‘big four’ and shops like Primark.
For competitively priced items, there are increasingly less outlets for consumers such as this to shop. Another example of a repressed consumer is a consumer who, for environmental reasons, would prefer to buy locally grown produce from a farmer’s market rather than imported goods from one of the ‘big four’, and is unable to attend because of a disability. I. e. it may be virtually impossible to get around a muddy field in a wheelchair. Similarly, mobility in terms of transport may be the issue i. e if the potential consumer of the farmers’ market couldn’t afford a car or couldn’t physically rive through disability then they wouldn’t be able to access the market. As social networking sites such as Facebook are increasingly becoming part of people’s lives, primarily the younger generation feel it is imperative for them to have internet access to be included in certain social groups. By not having, or affording to have internet access, social exclusions could occur, making the individual, as Bauman would put it, repressed. The same could be argued for older adults who may feel socially excluded, port retirement if internet access was not available to them. If Bauman were to categorise migrant workers in the U.
K. , working long hours, in sometimes poor working conditions and for a minimum wage, one would imagine that, based on the concepts of seduced and repressed he would clearly categorise them as repressed due to the fact that they can not consume effectively. In contrast to this, one might argue that it is up to the individual to decide whether or not they categorise themselves in to either group and not for society to do so. A migrant worker on a low wage in this country may believe that he/she is actually seduced as he/she is able to provide for his/her family in their home country; enabling them to live to a much igher standard of living that if they had stayed in their native country and worked for a much lower wage. Being able to consume effectively in this case makes one realise that aspirations of levels of consumption become much more personal to the individual. Data from a study by the ONS, (2009. p. 24), shows that the average weekly household expenditure in the U. K. totals ? 372, (after the mortgage or rent has been paid). A total of ? 157, 42% of the total, is spent on items such as recreation and culture, transport and restaurants and hotels. Based on these figures, Bauman’s concept of the seduced would include the average U.
K. family One could argue that Bauman’s concepts of the seduced and repressed are ambiguous in terms of defining categories and may just as well use concepts such as the rich and the poor, as with such concepts it would be assumed that the writer meant in terms of money where as the reader may refer to some sections of society as rich in time, e. g. the unemployed, where as wealthy entrepreneurs may be poor in time due to the long hours that they work. Vivienne Brown argues that as a global nation, we are increasingly consuming at a rate that is environmentally unstable due to the amount of waste that is being created y consumers, thus putting the future of the planet’s ecosystem’s ability to continue into the future at risk. (2009, p. 115). Based on figures compiled by the ONS, (2009,p. 112), real average earnings in the U. K. have increased by 50% between 1990 and 2007. If, based on Bauman’s concepts, the average family is seduced, then increasing expenditure on goods surely demonstrates that the social implications are that the world is becoming increasingly environmentally unstable. In conclusion, Bauman’s concepts of the seduced and repressed, although somewhat stereotypical does show a large cross section of society as a whole. However, as a role or understanding the place of consumption in contemporary consumer society, one may argue that there are far too many examples to contradict these concepts. Bauman has applied his concepts to a majority of particular sections of society and not taken in to account the views of individuals, rather generalising categories subject to their social group, age or ability. WORD COUNT : 1357 References Taylor, S. , Hinchliffe, S. , Clarke, J. and Bromley . S (2009) Making Social Lives, Introducing the social sciences, Milton Keynes, The Open University. Staples, M. , Meegan, J. , Jeffries, E. and Bromley, S (2009) Larning Companion 2,
Introducing the social sciences, Milton Keynes, The Open University. SELF REFLECTION I found the course material for this assignment particularly interesting. I felt that I understood the coursework. However I found putting my thoughts down on paper for this TMA much more difficult. I am trying to take on board the comments from my last TMA. ———————– Discuss the role of the concepts of the seduced and repressed for understanding the place of consumption in contemporary consumer society Bauman’s ‘repressed’ low income, disabled, loss of social interaction. Not able to afford to be manipulated by the media
Bauman’s ‘seduced’ consumers with disposable income able to consume effectively. Identity. Belonging to a particular social group Ethnic minorities, older people on state pensions. Restrictions on involvement due to lack of finance Conceptual shift from Industrial to Consumer. Luxury items now available to the masses. Buying lifestyle Problem with concept. Individuals may choose not be seduced due to ethical issues or see through the media manipulation. Migrant workers seduced or repressed? Individuals choice? Social messages associated with consumption. Veblen Conspicuous consumption. Buying to show status within society